The Builder Magazine
May 1924 - Volume X - Number 5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FRONTISPIECE - ALEXANDER HAMILTON
FREEMASONRY AND THE DEMANDS OF THE TIMES - By Bro. S. Parkes
Cadman, D. D., New York
GEORGE WASHINGTON AS AN ACTIVE MASON - By Bro. Charles H.
Callahan, G. M., Virginia
PRESENT-DAY CONDITIONS OF FREEMASONRY - By Bro. Joseph E.
Moreombe, Associate Editor, California
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN ORDER OF SCIOTS - By Bro. Jesse M. Whited, Associate
AMERICAN INDIAN MASONRY - By Bro. Arthur C. Parker, New York
A REVIEW OF CRYPTIC MASONRY - By Bro. George W. Warvelle, P. G. M.,
GREAT MEN WHO WERE MASONS - CAPTAIN GEORGE H. DERBY -
By Bro. G. W. Baird, P. G. M., District of Columbia
PLAYING FAIR WITH A CANDIDATE
ILLUSTRIOUS MASONS OF IRELAND - By Bro. J.H. Edge Ireland
THE SOUL STEALER - By Bro. W. J. Barclay, Canada
THE STUDY CLUB - Chapters of Masonic History - Part XII, Various Grand
Lodges; York, Ireland, Scotland, Etc. - By Bro. H. L. Haywood
EDITORIAL - A Word to New Members of the National Masonic Research Society
THE LIBRARY - An Interpretation of the Blue Lodge Work
A New Edition of Gould's Concise History
Rosicrucianism and Ereemasonry
A Note Concerning The Builders
A-l LODGES IN C-3 ENVIRONMENTS - By Bro. Wm. N. Ponton, Grand Master,
THE QUESTION BOX AND CORRESPONDENCE - Scottish Rite Rituals Not for
Grand Lodge of England's New Temple
Statistical Standing of the Acacia Fraternity
The Trial of the Knights Templar
That Famous Dollar Bill
Information About Freemasonry in India
Grand Lodge Ranking According to Membership.
Dedication of House of the Temple
What Were the Cherubim?
A Book About Foreign Masonry is Recommended.
Anent Gould's List of Famous American Masons.
The Highest Masonic Lodge..
YE EDITOR'S CORNER
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Freemasonry and the Demands of the Times
By Bro. S. PARKES CADMAN, D.D., New York
Dr. Cadman, who is one of the most delightful companions in the world, gave
utterance across the dinner table to so many wise things about Freemasonry, some of
them almost radical and all of them most pertinent, that Ye Editor asked him to say
the same things to the Craft at large through THE BUILDER. What follows is not in
the form of his vivacious table talk but it contains the substance - except for a few
things which he described as "too prickly for publication, and maybe dangerous
withal." Our illustrious brother addresses multitudes of persons every year from pulpit
and platform and over the radio; many of these audiences are composed wholly of
Masons, for he is an enthusiastic member of "our magnificent Fraternity" (as he
himself describes it). From 1895-1901 he was pastor of the Metropolitan Temple,
New York; since 1901 he has been pastor of the Central Congregationalist Church,
Brooklyn. Among his published volumes "Charles Darwin and Other English
Thinkers," "The Three Religious Leaders of Oxford" and "Ambassadors of God" have
BROTHER Freemason, this mighty Craft of ours can make itself a power for good in
this troubled world second to none if only we can get our tremendous strength hitched
up to the needs and problems of this hard-hit suffering world. Isn't the whole world
in a bad way just now? It surely is! The times we live in are simply crying aloud for
just the kind of service that Freemasonry can render and I believe that we should
awaken ourselves from the sleep-walking we have fallen into, bestir ourselves a bit,
and start out to discover what demands the times are making on us. Three million of
us in this country! What an army of righteousness it is if only it will become an army
indeed - an organized body of picked men militant in their demands that wars end,
human suffering be relieved, hatred and malice done away, and corruption driven out
of the seats and centers of government. Why don't our Masonic leaders get busy
about this big job; let them mount the tower's, unlimber their trumpets, and sound the
call to us in the ranks. "Here we are, Fafayette!" yes, but let us learn to say, "Here we
Hatred, bigotry, sectarianism, and racial strife are among the really big evils of our
day, and account more largely for what is wrong with the world than most of us
would at first suppose. Hatred is the opposite of charity; bigotry makes free thinking
impossible; sectarianism is the arch enemy of universality; racial strife makes genuine
brotherhood impossible; any one of these is doing as much damage to our race right
now as the famous "four horses of the Apocalypse." Can Freemasonry compound
with any of these things? not for a moment! I am absolutely opposed in every sense of
the words to all the hysterical efforts being apostle par excellence of toleration in all
its forms, into any propaganda, movement, cabal, or any other effort, secret or public,
toward any form of religious, racial or political sectarianism.
And I am equally opposed to every effort whatsoever to introduce social hysteria into
our ranks; play is good and sociability is necessary but not to the exclusion of
everything else, least of all if they interfere with the grave and necessary work of the
Craft. One of the saddest sights in the world is to see a Masonic lodge, assembled
about an altar, every heart open to the glance of the All-Seeing Eye, and working
under the hallowed influence of that great symbol the Fetter G, transformed into an
appendage to a vaudeville performance, or hastily put out of the way for some form
of hokum, jazz, dancing or what not. Mind you, I am not at all opposed to good
sport, clean fun, and wholesome sociability, which are all good and necessary things;
but there is a time to dance, a time to play, even a time for horse-play if we feel the
need of that kind of fun, but when that time interferes with the hours set aside for
Freemasonry's great task and achievements it is well for us to call a halt. The great
danger of the countless interests and activities that are now creeping into the Craft is
that these things which should be secondary will become primary, and that what
should be diversion on the side usurps the place of the real work of the lodge. We are
in danger of getting out of focus and of dispersing our energies, which as I have just
said, and as a wise and kind Heaven knows, are sorely needed by our times.
Our Editor has asked me what I would do if I were to become today the Worshipful
Master of a lodge. I know one thing I would do: I would thank God for such an
opportunity of service. 1 love the Masonic lodge; it is the one place in my community
where without embarrassment or with any form of obtrusive tolerance I can meet as
man to man my Jewish neighbours, my neighbours of foreign birth (we have
thousands of them in my city), my free thinking neighbour, my neighbour who never
attends my church or any other church, my neighbours of no creed or any creed, all
my fellow human beings of every possible social and economic stratum. I submit that
such an organization as that is a prophecy and earnest of the coming of the Kingdom
of God. Therefore as the Master of it I would feel as I feel in my present
employment, that I am a humble ambassador of the good will of God to a world that
seethes with the ill will of tom, separated, misguided men.
I would try my best, as goes without saying, to hold up to a high standard the
prescribed work - the monthly communication, the conferring of degrees, finding
work for the unemployed, lending a helping hand to the needy, calling on the sick. In
addition to that 1 believe I would try to do a few things not officially required. If a
distinguished citizen came into my community with a real message I would invite
him to speak to my brethren, whether he were a Mason or not. I think I should expect
my brethren to be good citizens in every possible way; and I would try to get them to
read something about Freemasonry itself. All Masons are interested in the public
schools; I am interested myself, but I do believe that as at present operated our public
schools are falling far short because they so completely omit anything in the way of
moral or religious training. It would amaze you to know how many gangsters and
gunmen in New York and Brooklyn have graduated from school, but with no more
conception of moral obligation than so many Hottentots. Perhaps I would try to get
my lodge to lend its influence in that direction. Freemasonry as a whole should do it,
because if there is anything we stand for it is the primacy and all-importance of the
moral life. What is the meaning of our Ritual if not that?
In all such ways, and in every other possible way, I would endeavour to have my
lodge go to work to help build the community. We are builders; what are we
building? Shouldn't we try to build this present world into a fit place to live in? It is
the demand of the times. A lodge may not be able to do much for the world at large;
it doesn't have to, but it can do a lot for the community immediately surrounding it.
Masons helped build America; we can help build it anew to the end that the rascality
which now so corrupts our politics and social life may be driven out, as the Master
drove the thieves from the Temple.
It is a great misfortune that the forces of Freemasonry are so divided. I regret it every
day of my life that we have in this land forty-nine Grand Lodges. Can't we somehow
get together? If a general Grand Lodge is impossible (I do not always believe that it
is; it wouldn't be if we didn't have so much selfishness, lust for vainglory, and so
much of the spirit of the politician in our midst) why can't all our Grand Masters and
other national leaders hold an annual conference to the end that the moral influence of
the Craft be delivered to the world through one united utterance?
I should like to see all the Grand Lodges of the world united. It would be a great step
toward international peace. But at the same time I want to see God and the Holy
Book kept at the center of the Craft. I know how things are in Europe; I have been
there many times. I know how an emancipated free thinking Latin citizen looks upon
such matters; to him they stand for many things that have never entered our own life:
nevertheless I should like to see him join us in holding Freemasonry to its original
foundation. Even for a united world-wide Freemasonry I would not be willing to give
up T.S.G.A.O.T.U. or the V.S.L.; such a price would be too much to pay for unity.
Freemasonry has no quarrel with any church. It can (and should) work with all the
churches because its own grand purpose is identical with that of religion, and because
its own creed is broad enough to include all the creeds. It has no quarrel with any
government or any political party; these things are not for us, but at the same time we
are the custodian of such principles of citizenship as underlie all governments and we
have within our midst a sufficient influence to maintain integrity and cleanliness in
every government, whatever it may happen to be. The main thing for us Masons is to
hang together, live together, keep together, work together, pray together, and together
strive to build in the midst of earth the Temple of right and kindly living, which is the
goal of all our efforts. Whatever makes for division, sectionalism, prejudice, and
creedal or racial hatred is un-Masonic though it should be proclaimed by all the
Grand Lodges in the hemisphere; whatever makes for unity and for charity, for
toleration and for kindliness, for our two great dogmas of the Fatherhood of God and
the Brotherhood of Man, IS Masonic, and we should work for it.
Can't we three million American Masons learn how to make ourselves felt in this
land? We don't wish to get into politics or to take sides for or against any of the
divisions in the church. We do wish, however, and desire, and the times asks us for
it, to give our aid and support to the completion in this continent of that proud and
magnificent nation which our forefathers, Masons many of them, dreamed about and
wrought for. Together, brethren, let it be done!
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George Washington as an Active Mason
By Bro. CHARLES H. CALLAHAN, Grand Master, Virginia
Since the work on the great Washington National Memorial at Alexandria, Va., has
been begun the question has frequently been raised, Was George Washington an
active Mason, or was he merely, like a few other illustrious men, contented to have
his name on the roll? This question has been answered once and for all, one may
believe, by the one man who knows most about the subject, Bro. Charles H. Callahan,
author of "Washington, the Man and the Mason," in an address delivered before the
Grand Lodge of South Carolina, held at Charleston, S.C., March 14, 1923. A part of
that address is given below.
SOME of our friends have said that George Washington was a very poor Mason, if a
Mason at all; that if he presided over a lodge it was because the lodge wanted to
honour itself. Perhaps this is true. And some of our Masonic friends have asked me,
why erect a memorial to Washington at all, and if so, why erect it at Alexandria?
Now, let us see just for a minute what was the condition of Masonry in Washington's
day. He got his degrees in 1752 and 1753. He took up a military career, and was
engaged in the army until 1758, away from Mt. Vernon. He returned in 1758 and
married the widow Custis, and installed her and her children in Mt. Vernon at the
mansion, and for fourteen years he led the quiet life of a farmer, fifty miles from the
nearest lodge, which was at Fredericksburg. It would have been a physical
impossibility to have any record of his visitations to that lodge for the very sufficient
reason that the records were lost from 1755 to 1790. If he ever attended that lodge we
could find nothing recorded of the fact because of the destruction of the records.
The Revolution came with all of its harrowing consequences, and Washington and the
whole country was dragged into the struggle for American independence, he to lead
the forces. Commissioned as Commander-in-Chief in Philadelphia, he wended his
way to Cambridge and took command of the Army, and almost immediately after he
assumed command a military lodge was organized in the Connecticut lines, and
before the Revolution had half closed there were ten of those militant organizations in
the Continental Army alone. Each province had its own soldiers, and those soldiers
were not required to go beyond the borders of that province.
And then there was a general army called the Continental Army, and it was in that
Continental Army that ten lodges were organized. The records have been picked up
and patched together as best could be done, and there has been brought to light by the
patching together of these destroyed records the fact that Washington, immediately
after the beginning of the Revolution, became a zealous and active Mason. The
Revolution closed, and he returned home on Christmas Eve, 1783, and the records of
old Alexandria, No. 39, showed that two days afterwards he accepted an invitation to
attend a banquet given by the lodge. The records show that he did attend that
banquet, that he attended five times later, before he was made Master of No. 22.
Immediately upon his installation he was called away to preside over the new
Government. And it was during that period of his life from the time that he installed
that untried government institution which today influences the political virtues of the
world that Washington became most active and stands out as one of the most
potential figures in Masonry.
We must judge not from his activities in the lodge, not from his activities in the
Masonic bodies, but from the deference which was shown to him by the leading
Masons of that day. Upon the conclusion of the Revolutionary War the provincial
Grand Lodges were conducted on the elective system. Gen. John Sullivan, Major
General in the Revolutionary War, became the first Grand Master of his lodge....
Robert Livingston, who swore George Washington in as President of the United
States, became Grand Master of New York and presided over its destinies for fifteen
years, to be succeeded by General Martin. Col. Aaron Ogden became Grand Master
of New Jersey, and R.B. Marshall of Maryland. He had been the Worshipful Master
of the first army Union Lodge organized at Cambridge, moved from Maryland to
South Carolina during this period and returned to organize and became the second
and third Grand Master of your Grand Jurisdiction under the independent system.
Edmund Randolph became the first Attorney General in Washington's administration
while he was Grand Master of Virginia and Governor of the Commonwealth as well.
General Jackson became Grand Master of the first Grand Lodge of Georgia; North
Carolina had four Generals and three Governors as their first Grand Masters, and each
had been ranking officers in the Revolutionary War; each and every one of them
fought side by side with Washington and each and every one of them in the transition
from the old to the new system of lodges deferred to Washington as the Freemason.
The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts dedicated its first constitution to him; the Grand
Lodge of New York did the same; the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania followed suit;
the Grand Lodge of North Carolina did the same thing; and the Grand Lodge of
Virginia, having first elected him its first Grand Master, which he declined, also
dedicated their constitution to him. Wherever he journeyed, whether in the north or
south, whether as a private citizen or public functionary, he was tendered all the
horrors of a Mason, and was recognized as such by the greatest Masons in the Grand
Lodges of this country in that or any other time, and I challenge contradiction. Is it
conceivable that these men who bad organized these Grand Bodies would cater to a
man who was not a zealous Freemason? Were they of that type? The Revolutionary
War was won by red-blooded, live Americans, and Washington stands out as the
greatest figure in the fraternal world of that day, and be stands out as the greatest
figure in the political and military world of that day.
That is the reason why we should build a memorial to Washington, the Mason. But,
brethren, in the last analysis, it is not a memorial to Washington, the Mason, alone. It
is a memorial to every Mason whose Grand Jurisdiction deems worthy a place in that
Temple, and that is a part of the Constitution. In this Hall of Fame, says that
Constitution, there shall be set apart a space which shall be allotted to each Grand
Jurisdiction identifying itself with the Constitution, upon which to erect memorials to
their illustrious dead. There is not a man in this hall, there is not a man under the
sound of my voice that this Grand Lodge could not honour if they want to honour
with a place in the Memorial to your own Washington. It is your temple, for your
people. It belongs to no section and shall be confined to no age or specific purpose
other than to honour worthy men of our Craft.
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Present-Day Conditions of Freemasonry
By Bro. JOSEPH E. MORCOMBE, Associate Editor, California
"We must learn to let go of the old that ages in order to lay hold of the old that ages
EVERY man will look at life, and the things of life, through his own spectacles.
These are tinted by his own temperament, and most likely by his own prejudices.
However dogmatically he may declare that this and that are self-evidently true, he can
express no more than a personal reaction to what are accepted by himself as the
governing facts. The value of any reasoned judgment is not so much in the
conclusions reached, as in the mode of approach - the finding of a new angle from
which to estimate events or tendencies. Thus in writing of present-day conditions of
American Masonry the best that can be hoped for is a survey that may be within
reasonable distance of the exact truth. However faulty the reasoning or inadequate
the expression, the effort here is to present a fairly clear picture of the Craft, to
measure its more recent progress and to guess, if no more, at the direction of its travel
into the immediate future.
It is to repeat a threadbare commonplace for one to assert that the present is a time of
change. As matter of fact life itself is the sum of change, and human society can not
be static and continue to exist. But in this our own time events beyond the common
have forced shifts and changes so great and sudden that all things are unsettled. Ideas
and institutions that had been regarded as most stable have suffered shock and
betrayed weaknesses hitherto unsuspected. Petrine foundations and Masonic
landmarks have alike been tested and often found wanting. Wise men are digging
about the bases of their social structures, to discover what parts are weakened or
decayed, that so repairs may be made, and collapse avoided.
This may seem a strange preface in speaking of an institution that has somewhat
foolishly boasted of its immutability. For there have been and still are brothers who
will have it that Masonry cannot suffer change. For them the landmarks are
immovable, and he who would suggest innovation, whether in form, method or ideals,
is regarded as a profaner of the temple. Yet every social agency is governed by the
laws of being; life is predicated on adaptability to changing environment. The course
of time is littered with the ruins of institutions that have failed to adapt themselves to
"All human things," says Carlyle, "are, have been and forever will be, in movement
and change.... How often, in former ages, by eternal creeds, eternal forms of
government, and the like, has it been attempted, fiercely enough, and with destructive
violence, to chain the future under the past ... Man's task here below, the destiny of
every individual man, is to be by turns Apprentice and Workman; or, say rather,
Scholar, Teacher, Discoverer; by nature he has a strength of learning, for imitating;
but also a strength for acting, for knowing on his own account.... The true past departs
not, nothing that was worthy in the past departs; no truth or goodness realized by man
ever dies, or can die; it is all still here, and, recognized or not, lives and works
through endless change."
It is the growing sense of impending change - of insecurity if you will - that in
opinion of the present writer is the most remarkable and most encouraging condition
in present-day Masonry. In our Fraternity, as in all other truly living institutions,
there is a clash of opinions, becoming increasingly vehement as the issues are more
clearly defined. The differences between modernist and fundamentalist are not
confined to the churches; in every social agency there is debate between the static and
dynamic elements. In proportion as there is vigour to such discussions will be the
vitality of the institution. One might have despaired a few years ago of any real
intellectual life in Masonry; today he will be encouraged by the evidences of mental
activity and of thought devoted to the better things of the Craft.
There are some few radicals in Masonry - stormy fellows, who would
indiscriminatingly destroy as preliminary to any rebuilding, to whom repair and
adjustment are words abhorrent. They are matched at the other extreme by a
diminishing number of die-hard conservatives, who would yield no jot or tittle of the
heritage received from the fathers. The great body of thinking Masons, however, are
between these extremes; Masonic modernists and fundamentalists are alike concerned
for the welfare of the Society, however much they may dimer as to the means that
should be employed to assure its permanency. From the discussions that have already
begun, and that will be carried on with increasing vigour, we can believe that the
proper course will emerge. Only the most extreme of the conservatives will hold out
against the necessity for change; the extent and method will require the wisdom of the
Craft to decide. The very nature of the brotherhood precludes aught that is
revolutionary. Masons whose thought is worth considering will agree, with Bacon,
that "men in their innovations should follow the example of time itself; which indeed
innovateth greatly, but quietly, by degrees scarce to be perceived."
Revolutions are short-lived; they exhaust themselves of very fierceness. They mark
the threshing-floors that God has placed through the centuries, whereon with bleeding
feet men have beaten out some grain of truth from the gathered chaff of error and of
wrong. In spite of some of the wild-eyed prophets of disaster no thinking American
will fear material revolution. But there are also revolutions of thought that silently
shake all social edifices. Who will deny that some such revolution is even now
causing strange movements in our country? Our whole social system is being
subjected to strains. Men are inquiring as to open wrongs and hidden iniquities. At
such time no individual or institution can sit by indifferently.
Masons, among others, are realizing that the Craft, as a social agency, must assume
its full share of responsibility; must seek out its duty and bend every energy to its
performance. It is not enough to say, at this juncture, that every real Mason can be
depended upon to act as a good citizen should. Good causes are carried to victory by
mass effort. The potentiality of Freemasonry in the United States is beyond aught we
have dreamed. It can and should be used to strengthen the forces that are striving for
the triumph of good. The matters that are of partisanship are not within our province;
the great problems that affect human life in all relationships, wherein justice is
concerned - these certainly are not foreign to Masonry, unless all our professions are
to expend themselves in words. It is for Masonic lodges to seek out the truth in the
affairs that are vital to the community or the nation. Having found out the right, there
is but one side the Craft can take.
THERE IS A NEW NOTE IN THE FREEMASONRY OF TODAY
This writing, however, is not an argument, but rather a brief survey of the situation.
One must be dull indeed who has not recognized in the Masonry of today a new and
serious note; a growing desire on the part of brothers to be informed in such manner
that their Masonry will have a richer meaning. They are carefully and cautiously
taking steps toward a more practical and positive conception of the Craft. They are
asking that it shall aid them more effectively to self-realization, that it shall also give
them an outlet for energies hitherto repressed or expended in lines less responsive and
less deserving of confidence. American Masonry is seeking to descend from the
sterile heights, is slowly but surely equipping itself to strive valiantly for God and
humanity. Who, then, shall say it nay?
To the mind of this writer it is but part of this same spirit of change for the better that
men are seeking the spirit of Masonry with less regard for its letter. One may wonder
at times whether relaxation of the old regulations as to the quality of men admitted is
always wise. Yet, to take the matter of physical perfection as an example, the old
requirement was frequently carried to absurd lengths. Trivial imperfections were
regarded by some authorities as sufficient to bar men of high quality and
unexceptionable character. Today stress is laid rather upon qualifications of head and
heart, and less on missing finger-joints or crooked toes. Only again one asks whether
in many cases the eagerness to secure members does not prompt repudiation of the
former rules of selection. This also opens inquiry as to the great numbers that are
clamouring for admittance at the doors of all our lodges. Are these all "duly and truly
prepared" in heart and mind? Or are they brought hither by expectations that can
never be satisfied, and by desires that are not in harmony with the spirit and purposes
of Masonry? Because of this unprecedented influx our lodges are condemned to
labours that are, at the best, but secondary. It is an absurdity to declare that these are
Master Masons, properly instructed and having skill of craft, who have been
perfunctorily conducted through the initiatory ceremonies of the degrees. But here
also is cause for encouragement. Grand Lodges have recognized the fact that the
education of a Mason is not completed when he has learned a few signs and grips and
can make passable answers to some short catechetical form. Tentative programs are
being prepared and experimented with, having as object the information of brothers,
so that they can more effectively work as builders on the temple of humanity.
With these always well-meant and sometimes wise efforts to further Masonic
education there has been a dropping of much that before brought ridicule upon the
Fraternity. Some few persist in attaching to the institution a mystical or occult
content or significance. These are the jugglers of words; men whose ballast of
reasoning is insufficient to hold down the lighter cases of imagination, and who go
ballooning in cloud-land whithersoever the vagrant winds of fancy may blow. Men
of today are apt to turn from that one who claims to discover portentous secrets in
some dust-heap of time, or who affects by jumbled numbers or unmeaning words to
come upon a wisdom transcending human wit.
OUR FREEMASONRY IS FORWARD LOOKING
Freemasonry of our time is forward looking. What it may have received from the
past of value will be jealously preserved. But not every dust-covered relic of a time
gone by is worth preservation. The antique tools and arms of our predecessors may
have place in a museum; they are no longer for use for our generation. Our great
society is a matter-of-fact affair. Its manner of birth and course of development are
sufficiently well known to us so that we can put its history under scrutiny, nor fear
that we are profaning some sacred thing in putting out our hands in inquiry or
examination. Freemasonry is, and has been from the beginning, a middle-class
society. Its membership is a fair cross section of the best and staunchest elements of
our American life. We have among us no school of the prophets, no workers of
magic, whether white or black.
For the most part the Craft is made up of intelligent men, honest and reliable in all the
relationships of life. The society was formed for mutual assistance, and its purposes
remain unchanged as signified in the ternary of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. It
has unused capital in the good opinion of the world, the loyalty of its adherents, and it
stands beyond any other secular society in its potentialities. That it has enemies is a
point unduly stressed by some. The greatest enemy of Freemasonry is to be found
within itself - the ignorance of some and the indifference of many more. These stifle
the noblest aspirations, and render ineffective the efforts of brothers who have the
vision and would lead the Craft to fields of resultful labour.
It is no disheartening study to view the Masonic field. We discover a great society
moving slowly but surely to its appointed work for human good, becoming possessed
of a conviction of its high mission, unwilling longer to waste time and energies in
mere barrack ground maneuvers, but demanding a place in the armies of
"Not in vain the distance beacons, forward, forward let us range;
Let the great world spin forever down the ringing grooves of change."
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Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots
By Bro. JESSE M. WHITED, Associate Editor, California
In response to many requests for information concerning the Order of Sciots, we
requested Bro. Whited, Pharaoh of the Supreme Pyramid, to prepare a statement
concerning that organization which has grown so rapidly on the West Coast. Further
information may he had by addressing THE BUILDER or by writing to Bro. Whited
direct at 354 Pine Street, San Francisco, Cal.
THE Ancient Egyptian Order of Sciots originated in San Francisco in 1905, to apply
in a practical way the precepts of the great Masonic Fraternity. The form of
government adopted provides for a Supreme Pyramid meeting annually in November,
with power to establish subordinate bodies. The Supreme Pyramid is composed of
the Toparch, or presiding officer of the subordinate bodies, which are known as
"Pyramids," and elective representatives from each Pyramid.
The Sciots as Masons are endeavouring to furnish a new interpretation of service to
their Fraternity. Composed of Master Masons in good standing it aims to apply in
civic and political affairs the truths inculcated in the Blue Lodge Ritual. They
particularly stand openly for American institutions including the public school and
religious freedom. It is not "avowedly" anti anything, but openly and frankly
American and Masonic. From a dozen members in 1905 the organization has grown
until it is composed of 42 Pyramids in California and one in Nevada, with a combined
membership of 2 1 ,000.
The ritualistic work is founded upon an event that occurred about 1 124 B.C. when the
Egyptians visited the Isle of Chios in the Aegean Sea and discovered there an
association known as the "League of Neighbours," which was organized for the
purpose of mutually promoting the welfare and happiness of its members. "Boost one
another" is the slogan of the order.
Among its stated objects is the union of all Master Masons in a closer bond of
friendship, fellowship and cooperation. The Sciots hold that their most important
duty as citizens is to stand for the enforcement of law and order, to participate in
national, state and municipal affairs by the exercise of the franchise. The Pyramid is
an open forum for the discussion of questions of general interest, under the strict
prohibition that there must be no partisan or personal discussions, and that the name
of the order must not be used to further purely political or religious purposes or
indulge in direct anti religious propaganda.
Class distinction based on political, social or financial standing is denounced. Clean,
wholesome entertainment, clean advertising in a clean press are sponsored as the
indispensable concomitants of an established social order. The Sciots teach that
"Your neighbours' assistance and cooperation in your business affairs can be made
kindly without obtrusion. There is needed sometimes the strong grip, not of a dues-
paying lodge member merely, but of a friend to help you over the rough places of life;
a kind word spoken in your defense. A watchful care over you in your journey
through life is worth more than the most beautiful requiem, the most glowing eulogy,
or an imposing mausoleum."
In line with the order's application of "operative Masonry," the various Pyramids have
devoted their activities to such matters as the establishing of scholarships for the
children in the Masonic Home at Covina, Cal.; sponsoring and assisting chapters of
the Order of De Molay; assisting financially the Salvation Army and cooperating with
such groups as the students of the University of California in building their Masonic
clubhouse. Teachers' associations have been aided to advance the prestige of the
public school. As a force for good in the community, the Sciots hold a valued place.
The world needs their good offices not only as Masons but as champions of its
teachings, pyramiding respect for law and its sanctity through enforcement as first
and foremost objectives.
— o —
American Indian Masonry
By Bro. ARTHUR C. PARKER, New York
It is the misfortune of most writers on the American Indian and his affairs that they
know their subject only from books, and hence lack that sympathetic and intuitive
insight which is necessary to a complete understanding; also they are frequently so
academic in their interest that their pages grow as dry as the grass in August. Not so
with Bro. Parker, who knows his subject "in his blood" and who writes with a poetical
flair that comes only from the most sympathetic and whole-hearted interest. The
second (and more thrilling) part of his narrative will be published next month; it will
contain a vivid description of an actual Indian initiation. Our thanks are due to the
Buffalo Consistory, A.A.S.R.N.M.J.U.S.A. and to the author for permission to
republish here what has been printed in book form under the title "American Indian
A TALL bronze skinned guide led the way over an ice rutted road. The journey
toward the mysterious East had been commenced. Poliowing the guide in single file
were four and yet three, for one was the conductor in whose presence the three were
assured safety from all danger not of their own making. In all there were five, for
such is the order of the journey.
It was in the land of the Senecas, those most powerful confederates of the famous Six
Nations of the Iroquois. To this land in the Valley of the Cattaraugus had journeyed
the Commander-in-Chief of Buffalo Consistory with three other members of the
Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite of Masonry. The time was midwinter in the moon of
Nis-ko-wuk-ni, the appointed time when the great Thanksgiving of the Senecas takes
place in a nine day celebration. During this season of gratitude to the Great Spirit the
various fraternities and ceremonial associations hold sessions and a few of them give
public exhibitions. Not so, however, with one whose work is all in secret, and into
whose chamber only those purified and loyal are admitted.
The guide led on and the four followed, three being candidates for initiation. The
glimmering light held by the guide cast an uncertain ray upon the trail that penetrated
the moonless winter night. It was not an easy path nor was there sound footing on
this trail to that which was sought. At length a lodge was reached. Behind drawn
curtains there were faint gleams of light. Four sharp knocks were given and the door
opened a crack while a sentinel stepped out to examine those who craved admittance.
A curious passerby might have seen by a hurried glance that the form of the lodge
was an oblong, that there were two altars, upon one of which was placed a tray of
incense and a heap of strange paraphernalia. But the door soon closed, and hours
afterward the sounds of a peculiar chant, the blend of wild forest sounds mingled with
a strange rushing noise like that of a great cataract floated out from the walls of the
lodge-house. What was happening within?
IS THERE AN UNDISCOVERED MASONRY?
When the traveler or the ethnologist returns from his journey to one of the world's
out-of-the-way places and comes again into the society of his friends and brothers, he
finds that there are certain subjects that are of perennial interest and that men are
curious to know what he has learned of them. Not the least among these subjects is
Freemasonry. It is not the Freemason alone who is curious of Freemasonry; every
man who enjoys the society of his fellow men and who sees in the symbols that are
found in the world about him moral lessons that admonish him to virtue, sees also in
all Cosmos the potentialities of Masonry. Thus the student who has penetrated the
strange lands and places of Earth is called upon to tell what other races and peoples
know of mystic orders that bind men to morality and brotherly devotion.
In America we are asked what the native Red Man has of Masonry and if he has
signs, grips and words like those of the ancient Craft. Oftentimes the question comes
direct: "Are American Indians Masons?" Rumors have long been afloat that there are
tribes that have Masonic lodges and that Masons traveling amongst them have been
greeted by familiar signs and words and even led into lodges where ceremonies were
conducted in due form. Is it then true that in some way our ancient brethren have
traveled in unknown parts and among scarcely known people and have communicated
the rituals that we hold must be inviolate; or that they have issued dispensations to
these veiled lodges by which they may work under competent jurisdiction? How
much of Masonry do these extra-limital Masons know, and how well do they keep
and conceal from the profane their secret arts? If, perchance, they did not receive their
Masonry from moderns, where in the annals of antiquity did they discover it?
Such are the questions that are directed to the traveler who has observed the customs
of the outer-peoples of the world. In asking such questions the interrogator assumes
more than he may rightly do, but then, he only desires a correct impression and the
true facts of the case
WAS THE RED MAN A CRAFTSMAN AND BUILDER?
Except in the southwest the Indians erected no great buildings of stone. In the
northwest, especially along the coast, there were elaborate building of wood, built in
the familiar log cabin style, but having carved pillars, posts and heraldic devices. Not
strange to relate, perhaps, is the fact that in these two areas where building and
craftsmanship was so highly specialized, numerous fraternities existed. In other
regions, especially in the area of the great plains, the dwellings were more simple.
On the east coast and extending well into the Mississippi valley on the eastern side
many of the Indian nations were village and town dwellers living in bark covered
houses, some of them large and roomy. The Iroquoian peoples, for example, had
"long houses" built of poles, tree trunks and bark. Their towns were surrounded by
stockades of tree trunks, sometimes three rows being used. Unlike the Indians of the
plains who must move as the buffalo herds moved, the east coast Indians were more
or less sedentary. They were thus able to build up a compact form of government and
to evolve a well knit system of social organization.
In digging into the earth where once arose these ancient towns of the red men we
discover the durable artifacts made by their craftsmen. Working only with tools of
shine and bone they made many beautiful objects, the form and symmetry of which
excites the admiration and applause of modern observers. The archaeological
museums of America contain numerous examples of the Indian's handiwork. From
these things we learn that the native American of old had a keen eye, a skillful hand
and a sense of balance and harmony of form that is scarcely equalled today. Take any
well made and polished hatchet-head of stone (sometimes called celts, and often
erroneously "skinning stones"), and by placing it on a smooth, level surface you will
discover that it can be spun on one side, the axis being plainly visible and the balance
perfect. Here is a demonstration of a studied attempt to perfect the art of balance and
The Indian's knowledge of form is proven by an inspection of their implements. They
produced polished spheres, oviods, crescents, circles, squares, circular disks,
triangles, hemispheres, pyramids, etc. In drawing geometrical designs, however, they
seldom went beyond an octagon. The Indian, it will be seen, had his form of the
plumb, the level, the square and the compasses.
There will be some who will state that the Indians never made objects that reveal
craftsmanship but that such things are the work of the "mound builders." Such
persons are not well informed of modern research, for if they were they would know
that the mound builders were Indians and that the old time theory of the mysterious
"Mound Builders" is an exploded myth. Indians built the mounds and made all
aboriginal artifacts found in them. Documents have been discovered that prove that
the French and Spanish explorers saw the Indians erecting mounds. All the
archaeological authorities now know that America had no "mysterious race that was
vanquished by the Indians."
(To be concluded next month)
— o —
A Review of Cryptic Masonry
By Bro. GEORGE W. WARVELLE, P.G.M., Illinois
Cryptic Masonry, as that Rite is known which includes the degrees of Royal and
Select Master (and sometimes the degree of Superexcellent Master), has its name
from the fact that its ceremonies are symbolically connected with a crypt or secret
vault. Its growth during the past few years has been extraordinary, a significant thing
in view of the fact that it stands on its own bottom and is not used as a stepping-stone
to some other Rite. Bro. Fay Hempstead, Little Rock, Ark., is General Grand Master;
Bro. Henry W. Mordhurst, Fort Wayne, Ind., is General Grand Recorder. Bro.
Warvelle has contributed to the literature of the Rite a number of essays of permanent
value, one of the most useful of them being a historical review, the first part of which
follows. The next General Assembly will be held at Portland, Me., Sept. 8 and 9,
AMONG the many systems of Exalted Masonic Symbolism now practiced in the
United States, none have received a more general recognition or hearty acceptance
than the beautiful allegory known as the Rite of the Secret Vault. Yet, like the great
mass of our traditions, degrees and ceremonial observances, its origin is unknown,
and its early history, for the most part, consists merely of legends that are incapable
of verification and, in some instances, unworthy of belief. Its fundamental principles
may, indeed, be traced to the English Masonry of the revival, but there is no evidence
that the degrees, as such, were ever known or practiced outside of our own country
prior to the commencement of the present century, and the preponderating opinion of
Masonic archaeologists now is that they are the works of the early American
ritualists. I have, in my former addresses before these conventions, endeavoured to
discuss, in a general and possibly not altogether satisfactory way, these phases of the
subject, and to present to you my own views and conclusions with respect thereto;
yet, as fancy and fable have well nigh obscured the real facts, much must necessarily
be left to conjecture, and it therefore follows that any conclusion, however carefully
formed, must still be open to doubt and susceptible to impeachment. Today, however,
I stand on more certain ground, and in the remarks which follow, I shall endeavour to
show, in brief epitome, the growth and development of the Cryptic Rite on the lines
of fairly authenticated history.
Dismissing from our consideration the apocryphal story of the transmission of the
degrees from Frederick the Great and their subsequent exploitation by the Inspectors
General of the Rite of Perfection, it may be said that the history of Cryptic Masonry,
as a coherent and connected system, commences with the year 1818, and that it owes
its present existence to the zeal or cupidity, or both combined, of Jeremy L. Cross. It
has been clearly established that Cross received the degree of Select Mason from
Philip P. Eckle, at Baltimore, in May, 1817, and thereupon actively entered into the
work of its dissemination; that early in 1818 he, in some manner, became "possessed"
of the degree of Royal Master Mason, which, prior to that time, had been mainly
controlled by Thomas Lownds and his associates, and that he then conceived the
project of uniting the two and forming a new system, to which he gave the name of
Royal and Select Masters. The exact time when this was consummated has never
been definitely ascertained, but Josiah H. Drummond who has carefully run down the
early Cross Charters, fixes the event at some period between May and August of the
year 1818. It does not seem, however, that the plan was fully perfected until the year
following. From this period, then, may be dated the commencement of the Cryptic
Rite and its existence as an organized branch of Freemasonry.
But in order to obtain a more intelligent conception of the development and progress
of the Cryptic degrees during the years which have intervened since Cross first gave
them publicity, it will be necessary to indulge in a brief retrospect of the high degrees,
generally, during the same period, and to institute a few comparisons between the
United States and other countries where they are practiced.
The original purport of all "high degrees" was superior knowledge; the possession of
some part of the mysterious arcana unknown by or denied to the great mass of the
initiated. As a necessary corollary, membership was limited in point of numbers, and
the exclusive character thus imparted, formed one of the earliest and strongest
incentives for their acquisition. This was the general condition of high-grade
Masonry in the United States at the time Cross entered upon his Cryptic mission, and
which so continued for many years, and this, practically, is its special characteristic in
England and Continental Europe at the present time. It was not expected that the
multitude would either desire or appreciate the more profound philosophy of the high
degrees, nor was it intended that they should participate in the ultimate secrets, and in
all countries, except our own, this policy has never been departed from. During those
early years many initiates failed even to attain the Master's Degree, while the number
who were admitted to the mysteries of the Royal Arch were few indeed. In the
chivalric orders the same rule prevailed. The Knights Templar was then, as now, the
popular branch of these orders, but as they appealed at that time only to the
intellectual and religious element of the Craft, their numbers were ever of the most
limited character. If we may judge from the published transactions of the first thirty
years of the present century, I think I make no misstatement when I say that in point
of numbers and influence the Cryptic Rite equalled, if, indeed, it did not exceed, that
of the Order of the Temple, and this was its comparative standing when, in 1829, the
blight of Morganism fell upon the Masonic world. From 1830 to 1840 the high
degrees, generally, were in a dormant condition. From 1840 to 1850 there was a
period of convalescence, but it was not until 1860 that full recovery was effected.
About this time the A.A.S.R. commenced to relax its theretofore exclusive character,
by the creation of working bodies; two years later the Grand Encampment gave
impetus to Templarism by discarding the ancient badge of a Mason - the apron -
which, prior to that time, had always been worn, and adopting a showy uniform and
the mimicry of military usages. The Council, which, in the general awakening, had
measurably kept pace with other organizations, then commenced to suffer by
comparison, yet at all times its numbers have been fairly in proportion to the number
of Master Masons in the country, and gauged by the standards which prevail
elsewhere, and to which I have just alluded, its growth, though not large, has yet been
eminently satisfactory and in keeping with its traditions and declared exclusive
In this review I shall treat this subject by topics, rather than attempt to follow a
general chronological sequence, and as an introduction to the events of later periods,
shall first say a few words with respect to
Before and during the experimental stages of constitutional organization the "superior
grades" were handled mainly by itinerant lecturers and degree peddlers, as an article
of merchandise, for the benefit of the ambitious and credulous. Men purchased what
was offered with little or no inquiry as to the seller's title or right to convey, while
manufactured pedigrees and forged deeds were generally sufficient to satisfy those
who perchance might demand an inspection of the muniments. Therefore, like most
of the other "high degrees" practiced in the United States, those of the Cryptic
curriculum will not bear severe critical investigation in tracing the derivation of the
authority by which they are conferred. While there are legitimate and recognized
sources from which they flow, yet the channels of transmission, in many cases, are
either unknown or unconnected with the original fountain. The records of a number
of jurisdictions show that in many instances Councils were established on no other
authority than such as they assumed for themselves or the equally doubtful powers of
some self-constituted "deputy" or "agent," while the degrees, in numberless instances,
were "conferred" individually by simple oral communication and without any
pretense of authority or semblance of right other than that which accompanies mere
The authentic remains of the early history of Cryptic Masonry in many jurisdictions
furnishes abundant examples of the foregoing remarks, and the beginnings of the Rite
in Massachusetts afford, perhaps, as good an illustration as can be cited. It would
seem that as early as 1817 several Royal Arch Masons residing at Boston who, in
some way not now known, had obtained the degree of Royal Master, after a mutual
consultation determined, of their own motion, to establish a Council. They
accordingly met and organized by the election of officers, selection of a name and
adoption of bylaws, and from that time on continued to confer the degree of Royal
Master on such persons as were found to be qualified and desirous of receiving it.
The Council increased rapidly in numbers and popularity; individuals from other
parts of the state came to Boston and received the degree and, on returning home,
assisted in organizing Councils in their respective localities. Thus the degree was
diffused, and as late as 1826 only two Councils in the state are known to have had
charters, each Council resting solely on its own authority and acting in an
independent capacity. The same conditions will be found to have prevailed in many
other states. But time, the great healer, has long since cured these congenital
infirmities, while the twin forces of attraction and cohesion have welded into a
compact and homogeneous mass the contending and ofttimes incongruous elements
which compose the early and widely separated Councils of the country.
Aside from a few unauthenticated instances of communication by certain of the
"Inspectors General," the primary dissemination of the degrees, in organized bodies,
and under constitutional authority, must be conceded to Wilmans and Eckle at
Baltimore, and Lownds at New York, the former controlling the Select, the latter the
Royal Degree. The Baltimore body, if indeed it can be called a body, never seems to
have developed into a permanent organization, but rested rather in the caprice of the
"chiefs" who controlled, or assumed to control, the degree of Select Mason. By these
men temporary Councils were organized whenever it was deemed expedient and the
degree was conferred upon persons of their own selection. During the entire period of
its exploitation by Williams, Eckle and Niles, commencing at about 1795 and ending
with the assumption of jurisdiction by the Grand Chapter of Maryland in 1 824, it does
not seem that any body, bearing any similitude to those then or subsequently
established to control or confer the other degrees of Masonry, was ever organized.
There was indeed a vague and ill-defined something known as the Grand Council
over which Eckle was supposed to preside as "Grand Puissant," but this body never
materialized sufficiently to afford a good view, and from all that we can leam it
would seem that Eckle, as Grand Puissant, held and conferred the degree in a sort of
Lownds, on the other hand, subjected his degree of Royal Master Mason to
constitutional authority by the organization, in 1810, of a permanent body for its
control and diffusion, and this body, which has successfully withstood all the
mutations of time and the vicissitudes of fate, is still in existence as Columbian
Council, No. 1, of New York.
From these two bodies, mediately or immediately, is derived the Cryptic system
instituted by Cross in 1818, and promulgated by him and his "deputies," as well as
appropriated and imitated by others who came after him.
For a number of years Cross was very active in establishing Councils and conferring
degrees. The common report says that he found the business very lucrative and as
none of his charter fees ever found their way to his reputed principal, the "Grand
Council of the Select" at Baltimore, there is much reason to believe that these
rumours were not altogether unfounded. Finding the growing demand beyond his
power to supply without aid, he deputized one Cushman to assist him in the work and
a number of Councils were organized by his lieutenant. Rival peddlers afterwards
appeared upon the scene, the most active of whom was John Barker, who worked as
an "agent" of the "Supreme Council of the United States," and by virtue of the "high
power" in him vested by the "Grand Constitution of the Thirty-third Degree," sold
Cross' lectures and organized Councils. The combined efforts of these organizers,
together with others of lesser note, soon had the effect of producing a very thorough
and wide-spread diffusion. Cryptic Masonry became popular; it was cheap and at the
same time "way up," and had nothing interfered to stop its onward march we may
reasonably assume that it would in time have developed the full beauty of its still
latent symbolism and have become one of the great Masonic expositors of the world.
But being an exotic, it was acutely sensitive to every depressing influence, and when
by 1830 the fires of fanaticism had been fanned to their fiercest heat nearly every
Council in the country had ceased its labours and passed into a condition of
dormancy. For a period of ten years, or from 1830 to 1840, the Cryptic page is
almost a blank. Then came a slow awaking, but in many localities dormancy had
passed into death, and so complete was the extinction that even the memory of
Councils and Grand Councils was lost until in after years the student, groping amid
the debris of long forgotten days, discovered and brought to light the old records and
other evidences of former life. From 1840 to 1850 may be termed the period of the
revival, and from this latter date until the present time the Rite has made substantial
progress, but with periods of depression that can be better explained in connection
with other topics embraced in this review.
While the degree of Royal Master seems to have been originally conferred on Master
Masons, that of Select Master has always been considered as an extension or
explanation of the Royal Arch Degree, and its earliest known exploitation was as an
adjunct of a Chapter or under Royal Arch auspices. This was its distinctive character
while it remained under the control of Companions who first gave it publicity at
Baltimore, and the only authority for its dissemination ever received by Cross,
contemplated the retention of this idea, and although it was soon abandoned by him,
its effect was visible for many years, and is still urged in those jurisdictions where
Capitular domination continues to be exercised.
In the year 1 824 it was formally incorporated as a part of its system by the Grand
Chapter of Maryland, and thence-forward, until very recent years, continued to be
worked in its regular scale of Capitular degrees. About this time numerous self-
constituted "agents" and emissaries were driving an active and lucrative business in
the sale of the degrees, which induced the Maryland Companions to appeal to the
General Grand Chapter. The matter came up at the session held in 1829, when a
resolution was adopted recommending the Councils to place themselves under the
authority of State Grand Chapters, and granting authority to the Grand Chapters to
make such arrangements as might be found necessary for conferring the Cryptic
degrees in the Royal Arch Chapters of their obedience. While the General Grand
Chapter thus formally recognized the degrees of Royal and Select Master as
legitimate parts of the Capitular system, it did little or nothing in the way of carrying
out the resolution of 1 829, and in 1 844, upon the revival of Cryptic interest, the
matter again came before it when, after reaffirming the resolution of 1 829, a rule was
entered, that the conferring of the Cryptic degrees should be subsequent to that of the
Royal Arch. In 1850 a committee was appointed to inquire into the expediency of
forming a General Grand Council for the United States, but this committee reported
that the measure was inexpedient, and the matter was dropped. In 1853 the Cryptic
question was again presented, but by this time Councils and Grand Councils had very
generally assumed jurisdiction and labour, and the question was definitely settled by
the adoption of a resolution declaring that the General Grand Chapter and the
governing bodies of Royal Arch Masons affiliated with and holding jurisdiction under
it had no rightful authority or control over the Royal and Select Degrees, and
thereafter would entertain no question growing out of the government or working of
the same. Thus matters remained until the Session of 1877, when petitions were
received from several Grand Chapters asking permission to take cognizance and
jurisdiction of the Cryptic degrees, and permit the conferring of same by their
constituent Chapters. The matter was referred to a committee, who reported
adversely to the prayer of the petitioners, but the General Grand Chapter was "on the
fence" that year, and consideration of the report was postponed until the next ensuing
Triennial session. In the meantime, the Grand Chapters pursued their own course,
and when the General Grand Body reconvened in 1880, nine of its constituents had
practically absorbed the Councils in their respective jurisdictions.
Of the attitude of State Grand Chapters but little can be said based upon official
action. In Virginia, at an early day (1841), a mistake of fact induced a dissolution of
the Grand Council and a surrender of the degrees to the Chapter which has ever since
retained them. Michigan, at its organization, assumed control over the degrees as of
right. Maryland always maintained that position, but in most of the states they were
tolerated simply when conferred under the auspices of the Chapter. After the decisive
action of the General Grand Chapter in 1853, the state bodies generally disclaimed
jurisdiction, and from that time until the "merger," the Cryptic degrees were
recognized as an independent and totally distinct branch of the American Masonic
(To be concluded next month)
Great Men Who Were Masons
Captain George H. Derby
By Bro. GEORGE W. BAIRD, P.G.M., District of Columbia
GEORGE H. DERBY, the father of American wits, was, after graduating from West
Point in 1846, commissioned second lieutenant in the Ordnance and then, after three
months of service, was transferred to the Engineers. In 1847 he was promoted "for
gallant and meritorious conduct at the battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico"; in 1860 he
was made a captain.
Captain Derby was bom in Dedham, Mass., in 1823, and died in New York in 1861,
at the early age of thirty-eight. As a wit he had no peer, ante-dating Artemus Ward,
Bill Nye, Mark Twain and the other well known American humorists, though his
humor was very different from theirs.
He received a serious wound in the Mexican War which incapacitated him for very
active service so, there being no retired list in the army at that time, he was employed
on such surveys as the Lighthouse Establishment and other inland services demanded.
He was a member of San Diego Lodge, No. 35, San Diego, Cal., and was a Past
Master when he affiliated with that lodge.
Captain Derby conducted the explorations in Minnesota in 1 849, and from that region
went to the Pacific Coast. He had not the distinction of being a "forty-niner" but came
near being a "spring of fifty." The writer has found many pioneers of the Golden State
who knew Derby well. He made the first survey of the harbor of San Diego, the
second largest on the west coast, and had charge of the Military Roads Department of
the Pacific in the early days. In 1856 he became surveyor of the United States Coast
Survey, and also Lighthouse Engineer.
But he never seemed to have enough to keep him busy. Over the pen name of "John
Derby," also "Phoenixiana," he wrote the famous "Squibob Papers," "The Ladies'
Relief Society," "Inauguration of the New Collector," etc., and at times wrote
editorials for the San Diego Herald. The Herald was a prominent political paper with
much power in California. Once when the editor had to leave town for a few days he
left Captain Derby in charge and behold! Derby changed the politics of the paper in
one well written editorial. The joke seemed particularly pleasing to the "slopers" from
one end of the state to the other, so that the laughter was loud and long.
Derby was accurate in his figures and, being a particularly good draughtsman, made
very acceptable reports to the War and Treasury Departments. But when writing
reports of his surveys he managed to incorporate many humorous stories. An example
of these yams is found in one of his books wherein he tells of his determination of the
terminals and the length of Kearney street, which at that time was the principal
thoroughfare of San Francisco. After making his triangulations he plotted his work,
only to find that he had shoved the terminal of the street out into the water, near
Sauculito. Thereupon he tried another method. He invented a "go-it-ometer" which he
placed on a soldier's back so that the apparatus would register each step taken by the
man. But the man, though he made a satisfactory start, passed a beer saloon where a
grind organ was played and went in and danced twenty miles in a few hours! Upon
this, Derby, who was at his wits end, secured some information from the driver of an
omnibus, plotted it out on paper and turned it in.
General Sherman, who at the time was out of the army and head of a bank in San
Francisco, told the present writer another Derby story. Derby came into the bank
(where he kept government funds), picked up a check and wrote on it "one cigar,
George H. Derby"; he handed this to the teller who promptly tore it up and informed
the Captain that the bank did not sell cigars. Without a smile Derby re-wrote the
check. This time the teller took it to Sherman who wrote the notation "twenty-five
cents" on it and told the teller to give Derby a cigar. Sherman knew that the check
would have to pass the accounting officers of the Treasury Department and that
Derby would have trouble to explain, therefore they would have a joke on him.
The Secretary of War invited all army officers to draw and present to the Department
designs for changes in army uniforms such as would seem best to them. Derby, who
was a particularly clever freehand sketcher, entered the competition and sent in a
number of drawings which are still in the War Department. Jefferson Davis was
Secretary of War at the time and, being a West Pointer himself, gave this competition
personal attention. Mr. Davis may have had many faults, but he was at all times a
gentleman of the old school and the personification of dignity, so that no one dared to
attempt any familiarity with him. He seemed particularly pleased with Derby's
beautiful drawings and explanations until he came to the uniforms for the cavalry.
Derby's sketch showed the cavalryman with a hook attached to the back of his
trousers on which it was suggested that saddle-bags be hung when the cavalryman
was not astride his horse! This angered Mr. Davis very much. He called in the Chief
of Engineers with a view of having Captain Derby court-martialed for gross
disrespect, but the Chief advised him to let it pass lest the joke recoil upon the
Secretary himself. Mr. Davis took his advice, but in looking over the several sketches
again, he found others as wicked.
In 1861 Derby was stricken down with a sunstroke Then erecting a lighthouse on the
west side of Florida; he was taken to New York but soon died. His body was buried in
the family lot in Bellefontaine Cemetery at St. Louis, Mo., but about twenty years ago
was removed to the Military Academy at West Point and re-interred, and over it was
placed a modest memorial.
Captain Derby descended from Revolutionary stock. Among his ancestors were men
of great learning. His grandmother was Mrs. Horatio Townsend; his father was John
Barton Derby of Salem; his mother was Mary Townsend of Medfield. He was a
descendant of Roger Williams of Rhode Island and also of Governor Thomas Dudley
of Massachusetts. Captain Derby married Mary Angeline Coons of St. Louis and had
three children, Daisy Peyton Derby (Mrs. Black); Mary Townsend Derby; and George
McClellan Derby, the last named of whom is still living and is a retired Colonel in the
army. From Bro. Cyrus Field Willard, editor of the "Master Mason," San Diego, Cal.,
I learned, as I stated above, that Captain Derby affiliated with San Diego Lodge, No.
35, as a Past Master. He had been initiated in Benicia, Cal.
PLAYING FAIR WITH A CANDIDATE
A candidate seeks admittance into a Masonic lodge and is not sought, comes of his
own free will and accord, and is not stimulated by any motive of a selfish kind; the
whole responsibility for membership is laid upon his shoulders. Nevertheless, and
even so, a lodge has obligations to him so that in taking such a step he deserves
personal attention from the brethren with whom he wishes to affiliate himself. In
preparing himself to become a Mason he should have the assistance of those who are
already Masons to the end that at the very beginning of his new relationship he will
be made to feel the fine spirit and friendliness of the Craft.
It is a good thing for a committee to visit him personally, also the Worshipful Master
if that is possible, for oftentimes a few private words of information will dispel many
doubts and misunderstandings. If a questionnaire is to be filled out by him each
question should be carefully explained, its purpose being made clear so that he will
not place on it his own private interpretation; and the questions should not be in the
form of an inquisition but should rather present in query form all the main "points of
fellowship," which in our times are more than five. Also, these questions should be in
strict harmony with the by-laws of the lodge, and with the code used by the Grand
Lodge having jurisdiction, for a questionnaire should not be so framed as to exclude
from membership an applicant on such grounds as under any given code would not
exclude him. That would be to set up unwritten laws above the laws of a lodge or a
Upon the night of his initiation the main thing is to help him to approach the portals
of the Craft in the right frame of mind, not frightened as if he were to be put through a
humiliating ordeal, and not in a flippant mood looking toward horse play. To secure
this a wise Master will see to it that the preparation room is attractive in appearance,
comfortable in its appointments, and that no dull-witted jokes are there perpetrated at
the candidate's expense; also it is a fine thing for the Master, or some other lodge
officer, to meet the candidate before he enters the lodge with a formal "address to the
candidate," several forms of which are in more or less general use, and which need
not be long or heavy but so phrased as to set the key for what is to follow.
Nor should this personal attention to the candidate cease after he has been raised.
Why shouldn't a committee visit him once again, this time to explain to him
something about the workings of the lodge, how to visit other lodges, how to find a
niche for himself in the lodge's activities, and how to learn something about the
mighty Fraternity of which he has become a member? If too many candidate's are
raised to make such personal attention possible the Master could easily arrange to
meet with a class of new members every other month, have a little social hour with
them, and then talk to them as a group about such things.
One of the principal causes of the slackness of interest on the part of members new
and old is just the lack of contact between the lodge and the individual. One does not
need to seek farther, or go into profound discussions of it, to learn the cause of most
of the indifference which now plagues lodges so much.
— o —
I have two copies of Rebold's General History of Freemasonry, published at Toledo,
Ohio, 1883, translated by J. Fletcher Brennan. One of the volumes has for a
frontispiece a "View of the Interior of Solomon's Temple"; and the other has a picture
of "Ancient Athens" for the same purpose. Both books stop at page 358 and omit all
material dealing with British America, references to which are included in the index
in both instances. What are these volumes worth ? They are both in the original cloth
bindings so that the omission just mentioned was evidently intentional. Will brethren
interested please communicate with me ?
N.W.J. Hay don, 564 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Canada.
Illustrious Masons of Ireland
Along With Some Paragraphs Concerning Daniel O'Connell and Elizabeth St. Leger,
the Famous "Lady Freemason"
By Bro. J. H. EDGE, Ireland
A brother has written to ask if John Wesley, founder of the Methodist Church, was a
member of the Craft. Instead of the usual reply in the Question Box we are herewith
reprinting a portion of the paper contributed to Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol.
XXVI, page 131, by Bro. J. H. Edge, which contains a reply to the inquiry along with
much other interesting matter beside. Readers interested in Irish Masonry, about
which something is said in the Study Club Department this month, should take care to
read the entire article, which is entitled "A Short Sketch of the Rise and Progress of
WE can point with pardonable pride to the long roll of illustrious Irishmen who have
joined Freemasonry - men who differed widely in their religious and political views,
but who were enabled at the same time to unite in the common brotherhood of the
Masonic Order. Dean Swift was a member of the same lodge in London which
enrolled on its books his life - long friends, John Arbuthnot and Alexander Pope. For
some years we claimed the great John Wesley, though an Englishman, as an Irish
brother, owing to the fact that a Rev. John Wesley was a member of a lodge in
Downpatrick, and a contemporary of his famous namesake. It has now been
ascertained that this member of an Irish lodge was not the earnest evangelist who
founded the world- wide brotherhood of Methodists. By way of a slight compensation
we are proud to claim as a brother, though he was an Englishman and a member of an
English lodge, Samuel Wesley, nephew of John Wesley, the evangelist, and son of
the Rev. Charles Wesley, the melodious hymnwriter. Samuel Wesley evidently
inherited the remarkable musical genius of his family. In 1813 he composed and
conducted a Grand Anthem for Freemasons. A few years later, he composed a Grand
Mass for the Chapel of Pope Pius VI., and received in appreciation of it an official
Latin letter of thanks from the Sovereign Pontiff, and then, as a sort of
counter-balance, he composed for the Church of England a complete set of Matins
and Evensong, which at once took rank among our favorite Cathedral Services.
Arthur, the first Duke of Wellington, was christened Arthur Wesley, and he did not
use the surname of Wellesley until he was twenty-nine years of age. He was a near
relative of the founder of the Methodists; both were born leaders of men, and in
determination of character, straightforward conduct, and wonderful powers of
organization, there were many points of resemblance between the two cousins. The
Iron Duke was born in Ireland; and Dangan Castle, Trim, and Mornington House
(now the office of the Irish Land Commission), Dublin, both claim to have been the
places of his birth. He was certainly initiated as a Freemason in a lodge held in Trim,
and signed the Roll of the lodge in 1790 as 'A. Wesley.' He did not, however, take any
active part in the working of our Order during his arduous and eventful career.
That great Tribune of the People, Daniel O'Connell became a Freemason in 1799,
and continued an active and prominent brother for several years. Not satisfied with
being a member of the lodge in Dublin in which he was initiated, and of which he
became Master, he was one of the founders of a lodge in Tralee, and was affiliated to
the well-known Lodge No. 13, Limerick. O'Connell was a loyal son of the Roman
Catholic Church. He was also a liberal-minded, largehearted man, and often helped
his Protestant fellow countrymen. Many striking incidents have been related of this
celebrated Irishman, but I do not think it is generally known that one of the very first
uses to which he put his membership of the Imperial Parliament, after he gained for
himself and his co-religionists Catholic Emancipation, was to demand justice for an
Irish Protestant named George Dallas Mills, who had been a clerk in the Dublin post
office. Mills discovered frauds and abuses in the management of his department, and
reported them to headquarters. The Government, on investigation, found Mills was
right, reformed the post office, and, of course, dismissed the delinquents, but took the
extraordinary course of dismissing Mills also. O'Connell's chivalrous intervention
was successful. He obtained a life pension for the man who had been so infamously
The Roman Catholic Church showed at an early date its hostility to the Masonic
revival in the eighteenth century by issuing numerous Bulls, Letters, and Decrees
against it, beginning with the Bull, In Eminenti, of Pope Clement XII., dated the 28th
April, 1738. Notwithstanding such denunciations, the majority of the Irish brethren
were at the commencement of the last century of the Roman Catholic persuasion.
This did not arise from any wilful disobedience to the directions of their church, but
rather either from ignorance of their church's wishes or from the Bulls which had then
been issued not having been ecclesiastically promulgated in Ireland, or perhaps even
from other causes, such as doubts as to whether the church's mandates on the subject
were temporary or perpetual. The Roman Catholic Church's opposition has continued
to the present day, as is evidenced by the various declarations, including a peremptory
Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII., of April 20, 1884.
O'Connell, in a letter which appeared in The Pilot newspaper of the 24th April, 1837,
stated his reasons for having left our Order. It is only fair to his memory, and also to
ourselves, to give his letter in its completeness. It was read at the time in Grand
Lodge, and is as follows:
O'CONNELL RENOUNCES FREEMASONRY
To the Editor of The Pilot,
London, April 19 (1837).
A paragraph has been going the rounds of the Irish newspapers purporting to have my
sanction, and stating that I had been at one time Master of a Masonic Lodge in
Dublin, and still continue to belong to that Society.
I have since received letters addressed to me as a Freemason and feel it incumbent on
me to state the real facts.
It is true that I was a Freemason and a Master of a lodge It was at a very early period
of my life, and either before an ecclesiastical censure had been published in the
Catholic Church in Ireland prohibiting the taking of the Masonic oaths, or at least
before I was aware of that censure. I now wish to state that having been acquainted
with it, I submitted to its influence, and many, very many years ago, unequivocally
renounced Freemasonry. I offered the late Archbishop, Dr. Troy, to make that
renunciation public, but he deemed it unnecessary. I am not sorry to have this
opportunity of doing so.
Freemasonry in Ireland may be said to have (apart from its oaths) no evil tendency,
save as far as it may counteract in some degree the exertions of those most laudible
and useful institutions - institutions deserving of every encouragement - the
But the great, the important objection is this - the profane taking in vain the awful
name of the Deity - in the wanton and multiplied taking of oaths - of oaths
administered on the Book of God either in mockery or derision, or with a solemnity
which renders the taking of them, without any adequate motive, only the more
criminal. This objection, which, perhaps I do not state strongly enough, is alone
abundantly sufficient to prevent any serious Christian from belonging to that body.
My name having been dragged before the public on this subject, it is, I think, my duty
to prevent any person supposing that he was following my example in taking oaths
which I now certainly would not take, and consequently become a Freemason which I
certainly would not now do.
I have the honour to be,
Your faithful servant,
We must all respect our fellow-countryman for obeying the dictates of his conscience.
We not only would not wish, but would prohibit, any man from joining our Order if
we knew that he considered it wrong to do so; and we would not attempt to retain a
brother among us if, like Daniel O'Connell, he believed that to remain a Freemason
would be a sin, or lead to a waste of time or money. The very circumstance that, since
their church's directions have been made quite clear on the point, so few Roman
Catholics have belonged to our Craft in Ireland, shows conclusively that Irish
Freemasonry does not sap or meddle with the religious faith of its members.
I shall just add a few words on O'Connell's references to temperance and oaths.
Shortly before the date of his letter, a Temperance Association had been started in
Munster by the Rev. Nicholas Dunscombe, an Episcopalian clergyman; Richard
Dowden, a Nonconformist layman; and William Martin, a member of the Society of
Friends; and almost while O'Connell's letter was being written these three men were
joined by the Rev. Theobald Mathew, a Capuchin monk, who, by his burning
enthusiasm and earnest advocacy, quickly became the leader of the crusade.
O'Connell very properly favored this movement. It had a great deal to do with
restricting excessive drinking at all entertainments, including Masonic banquets.
Now-a-days there is no excessive drinking at our Masonic entertainments; and we as
brethren welcome the increasing number of total abstinence lodges among us.
As to the superfluity of oaths, involving and indiscriminate and indefensible misuse
of the Divine Name, the only excuse - and it is a very lame one for such a system is,
that it was only too common in Courts of Justice and in all societies one hundred
years ago. The practice of taking oaths has been virtually abolished in Irish
Freemasonry. It was never an essential part of our ritual; and affirmations, instead of
them, when the majority of the brethren present so wished it, were quite possibly
often allowed in olden times. We still require signs and passwords, for the reasons I
have already stated [in portion of the essay not here published]; but a pledge or
promise not to reveal them, unless in accordance with our rules, can now be given in
whatever manner is binding on the conscience of the candidate.
A LADY WAS MADE A MASON
To turn to a less grave subject. You have all, doubtless, heard it alleged that there was
one lady who became a member of the Craft. I think most of us regarded the tradition
as merely a myth, just an idle story invented by some outsider with the object of
ridiculing us. Late investigations have tended to prove its authenticity. The lady was
the Honourable Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile. The ceremony of her
initiation is said to have taken place in a lodge held in Doneraile Court about the year
1712, when she probably was not more than eighteen or nineteen years of age, as she
was bom in 1693. She had overheard Masonic matters and it was thought advisable to
admit her into our Craft under the obligation of secrecy. Her future husband, Richard
Aldworth, to whom she was married in 1713, was present at her admission. She
continued during the rest of her life to take a keen interest in Freemasonry. We have
no positive proof that any other woman was ever admitted in Ireland.
Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State!
Sail on, O UNION, strong and great!
Humanity with all its fears,
With all the hopes of future years,
Is hanging breathless on thy fate!
We know what Master laid thy keel.
What Workmen wrought thy ribs of steel,
Who made each mast, and sail, and rope,
What anvils rang, what hammers beat,
In what a forge and what a heat
Were shaped the anchors of thy hope!
Fear not each sudden sound and shock,
'Tis of the wave and not the rock;
'Tis but the Capping of the sail,
And not a rent made by the gale!
In spite of rock and tempest roar,
In spite of false lights on the shore,
Sail on, nor fear to breast the sea!
Our hearts, our hopes, are all with thee,
Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears,
Our faith triumphant o'er our fears,
Are all with thee - are all with thee!
— o —
The Soul Stealer *
By Bro. W.J. BARCLAY, Canada
Bro. Barclay will be remembered for his "A Woman of Naphtali," in THE BUILDER
February last. The present tale, founded on an actual incident, was sent to The
Square, Vancouver, B. C., for Canadian publication, and to these pages for
publication in the United States.
CAPTAIN NORWOOD leaned on the bride rail of the whaler Aurora as the good
ship plowed her way through the Polar Sea. He was in high spirits, for another two
hundred barrels of oil would complete his cargo. It was the second summer of his
present voyage. After wintering at Herschel Island, he had taken his ship to Siberian
waters, and though his luck had been good, it had not equalled that of the other ships
of the fleet. Now he was on his way to meet the whales coming down the west coast
of Banks Land, with the confident expectation of filling up and getting out of the
Arctic before the freeze-up.
Chasing the big bow-heads in these northern waters is a good deal of a gamble. There
is a regular sequence of feeding grounds known to whalers where their prey is to be
followed and - sometimes - found. In May and June it is off the Kamschatkan coast,
then it is through the Behring Straits to Northern Siberia; after that it is down the west
coast of Banks Land, and finally it is westwardly along the Canadian mainland. By
this time it would be September, and the course of the whales would be into the far,
unknown regions of the Beaufort Sea. That would end the season, for no whaler,
however keen, would dare to follow them up there in the shortening days and
gathering storms of winter's approach.
From his position on the bridge, Captain Norwood looked out over the sea. The
evening sun was dipping towards the horizon in the north. Sea and sky were full of
color - purple and blue in blending shades, with a background of blazing orange and
gold where the orb of day (or, rather, of night, in that region) shone through a hazy
atmosphere. The lavish hand of the Great Architect withheld nothing from His
bountiful display of beauty because so few of His creatures were there to see and
In the waist of the Aurora half a dozen Eskimos, hired at Herschel Island to help in
the tensing and boiling down, were seated on the deck listening to old Qivitok tell
stories of the supernatural, so eagerly relished by these primitive folk - how the
magician Kumagdlak destroyed a band of attacking enemies by shooting them with
arrows that had bone points made from the small of men's legs, and how he made the
arrows of his enemies swerve in their flight by waving the thong of the bag his
mother had carried him in on her back when he was a baby.
The keen eyes of Captain Norwood picked up a distant object some points off the
starboard bow. He
* This story is founded on an incident related by Captain Norwood, of the Arctic
whaling fleet, to Bro. T.R. Moulton, of the Customs Service, Vancouver, while Bro.
Moulton was in the government employ in Northern Canada.
turned his glasses on the object, and found, as he had expected, that it was an Eskimo
in his kayak.
"That fellow's a long way off shore," he remarked to the mate, who had just come
upon the bridge.
"And he's headed out - not in," added the mate. "Those critters are sure a fearless,
venturesome breed in their own environment."
But Eskimos out fishing were no novel sight to him, and the mate presently
descended to the main deck to direct some work. Captain Norwood continued to
regard the kayak with languid interest.
A FAMOUS SIGN IS GIVEN
Suddenly his interest quickened, and he straightened up from his leaning posture, and
again put the glasses to his eyes. The occupant of the kayak, who had laid his double-
ended paddle across the little craft, was, with freed arms, making a sign - a sign
startlingly out of place in that lonely Arctic sea.
Captain Norwood was puzzled and perplexed. But perhaps it was accidental? It must
be accidental, he argued to himself. An Eskimo! How could an Eskimo make such a
In his uncertainty he continued to watch through his glasses. Then, for the second
time, the sign was given. It was no accident! The kayak was now close a-bearn and
plainly visible, pointed to cross the Aurora's course. Undoubtedly, the Eskimo had
made the sign meaningly. He had made it towards the ship distinctly. However absurd
the situation might appear, from whatever source the man in the kayak had learned
the sign, there was no mistaking his action,
What was to be done about it? Captain Norwood remembered the night, long ago in
far off British Columbia, when he had been taught in a Masonic lodge never to
disregard that sign, for it would surely be-token a fellow creature in distress. He
pushed a lever, a bell rang in the engine room, the throbbing machinery ceased to
All on board turned in surprise to look at the bridge. Then sailors and Eskimos
crowded to the ship's side to watch the near approaching kayak.
"Get that man on board. Mister!" ordered the captain, as the kayak drew alongside.
"Aye, aye, sir!" responded the mate, giving the necessary instructions to the crew.
Then began a shouting and clamour of tongues among the ship's Eskimos, who
evidently recognized the newcomer:
"It is Sorqak, the soul stealer!"
"Send him away!"
"White men, do not let him come on board!"
They crowded about the mate, but he shoved them aside, and in their own tongue
ordered them away, emphasizing his words by swinging a rope's end in the air.
A kayak is the crankiest craft that floats on water, and there was some difficulty in
fulfilling the captain's orders. However, the Eskimo unlaced the thongs that bound
the skin cover around his body, and with the help of one of the crew who went over
the side on a rope ladder, he was assisted up to the deck. The kayak only weighed a
few pounds, and it, too, was hauled on board.
The newcomer was an elderly man with long hair heavily streaked with grey. He was
apparently strong and in good health, but his face was haggard and deeply lined. He
smiled a wan smile as he stepped aboard amidst his excited and unfriendly fellow-
Captain Norwood regarded his strange visitor for a few seconds with curious interest.
Then, remembering that his ship was stopped, he signalled to the engine room, and
once more the Aurora proceeded on her way.
Coming from the bridge, Captain Norwood called to the Eskimo, who stood
uncertainly beside the mate, "Apuren!" (come). Then he led him to his cabin, and the
mate took charge again on the bridge, wondering at the sudden interest his captain
was evincing in a stray Eskimo picked up at sea for no earthly reason that he could
Captain Norwood had spent twenty-five seasons in the Arctic. He had acquired a fair
working knowledge of the Eskimo tongue during the long idle winter night and short
hard working summer day, for every whale ship has a number of these northern
people engaged as hunters in winter and helpers in summer. He knew some of the
curious beliefs of these people. He knew that an Eskimo believes every person to
consist of three things - a soul, a body and a name; that the soul lives outside the
person, but follows it as a shadow follows a man in the sunshine; that, nevertheless,
the two are inseparable as long as the person lives; that only great magicians can see
the soul, which is smaller but looks exactly like the person, and that if it gets lost, or
if some magician steals it, the person will pine away and die.
On reaching the cabin, Captain Norwood closed the door and seated himself. The
Eskimo, unused to such surroundings, diffidently remained standing.
"They called you Sorqak, the soul stealer?" questioned the captain.
"My name is Sorqak; but they speak lies - 1 do not steal souls."
"Where do you come from, anyway?"
"You saw my sign, White Man, and I will tell you. I am of the Kogmolik people, as
are Qivotok and the others?'
"You are a long way from your home?"
THE "SOUL STEALER" TELLS HIS STORY
"I am," answered the Eskimo. "They drove me out of the tribe because they said I
took away the soul of Avunang, who walked over a cliff and fell into the sea.
Avunang was sick, and because I am an Angekoq (a subduer of spirits - a magician)
and had cured many people when they were sick, the wife and brothers of Avunang
came to me. They brought presents and I promised to ask the help of my spirit. My
spirit must have been a long way off, for I fasted and beat upon the drum and called
his name until I was weary, weary. Then my eyes closed and my hands hung down. I
found myself in a deep ravine down which poured a great waterfall. I knew I was on
the way to the underworld. I followed the ravine a long, long way. Down under the
earth it widened out suddenly and I found myself in a country with a thick dark blue
sky over me. It was not light there as it is up here. The sun was smaller and paler
than the sun on earth. It was winter there, but there was no snow; it never snowed.
Ice lay over the sea. I saw three men pushing their sledge over the smooth ice; they
had no dogs. One of the men was my father; the other two I did not know. They told
me it was pleasant down there. There were plenty of seals walruses and narwhals.
They invited me to go to a river where there were many salmon. When we had
walked a long distance my father pointed to a ravine down which I had come and
said, 'Turn back unless you wish to remain here.' Just then I saw the soul of Avunang
walking on the ice. I grasped it and ran towards the ravine; but the two men ran after
me and tore away the soul of Avunang. When I returned to earth the relatives of
Avunang cursed me. The sick man had risen from his bed shouting 'Sorqak! Sorqak!'
and had run to the cliff and fallen over. They said I had stolen his soul to make
greater magic. They were afraid and drove me from the village with stones and
The Eskimo paused, and there was silence in the cabin for a time. Captain Norwood's
pipe had gone out. He lit it again before speaking. Then he asked:
"And what do you want to do now, Sorqak?"
"White Man," answered the Eskimo, "I have wandered to the eastward ever since the
Great Warmer (the sun) has come back to the sky. I am weary of seeing no faces of
men or of women and children. When your great ship comes to another people set
me ashore among them. I do not want to go back."
"But the sign, Sorqak, where did you learn that sign?"
"When I was a young man, before my father died, he taught me many things. He
taught me the sign, and he said that his father before had taught him that when in
great difficulty or danger the sign should be made."
There was silence in the cabin again for a while as Captain Norwood puffed
thoughtfully at his pipe. Then he turned to the Eskimo:
"When we come to the shore of Omeurak (Banks Land) and find the people who live
there, I will give you food and a new seal spear and I will set you among them."
The face of the Eskimo lightened up. He smiled and said:
"You are good to me, my brother."
— o —
Chapters of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. HAYWOOD, Editor PART XII VARIOUS GRAND LODGES;
YORK, IRELAND, SCOTLAND ETC.
IN Part X of the present series of brief studies I gave a sketch of the organization of
"the Mother Grand Lodge of the world," formed in London, 1717; and in this
department last month gave a similar account of the founding of the Ancient Grand
Lodge. This account could not be complete without some word concerning the
formation of other Grand Lodges, especially since two of them functioned in England
itself. I shall begin with the Grand Lodge at York, known as
I. THE GRAND LODGE OL ALL ENGLAND
Many of the earliest legends and traditions of the Craft cluster about the time-
hallowed city of York so that to this day it is a revered name amongst us, and familiar
also, especially in the United States where we hear mention every day of the (mis-
named) York Rite. According to an old legend, Edwin called a General Assembly of
Masons at York in 926, but this is generally doubted, and that because there are no
records to prove it. But we do know that for at least two centuries Operative Masonry
was better organized in York than in most countries, and we have still in existence the
old Fabric Rolls in which was kept a record of the building of York Minster, to show
us what manner of men the old Masons were and how they conducted their affairs;
these "Rolls", or records, cover the years 1350 - 1639.
It is probable that a lodge organized by those Operative Masons continued on long
after their work was finished. According to Hughan the records show that at least as
early as 1643 a lodge was in existence there. This lodge, like so many others,
succumbed in the course of time to pressure, and began to admit "gentlemen
Masons", i.e., men who had no intention of practicing Operative Masonry, and this
"Speculative" element came in time to dominate, so that shortly after the beginning of
the eighteenth century it assumed entire control. According to an inventory made in
1779 the lodge possessed at that time a MS. book containing records beginning with
March 7, 1705 - 6, but this precious volume was somehow lost, and seems now
beyond recovery. The existing lodge minutes go back to 1712, which was five years
prior to the founding of the first Grand Lodge. At that time it would seem that there
was in York one "Mother Lodge", described in latter years, but inaccurately, as
having been a Grand Lodge, and that this lodge chartered others; but even so it
evidently possessed little strength because the "Mother Lodge" held no meetings at
all, at least so far as the records show, during the years 1717-1721. An awakening
came after a Grand Lodge (properly so called) had been established in London, and
after a Book of Constitutions had been published. York Masonic assemblies had been
presided over by a President, but in 1725 the style was changed to "Grand Master",
and Charles Bathurst was elected to that office; what had been a "private" lodge
transformed itself into a "Grand Lodge", and adopted the name "Grand Lodge of All
If there was no open friction between this Grand Body and the Grand Lodge already
formed there was apparently little or no active cooperation, and in the Grand Lodge of
All England itself there was not much strength; after it chartered a few lodges (none
of them outside of England) it ceased gradually to function somewhere between the
years 1740-1750. Then, after having remained dormant, it was awakened in 1761 to
new activity, after such manner as the following minute explains:
"The Ancient and Independent Constitution of Free and Accepted Masons, belonging
to the City of York, was, this Seventeenth day of March, in the year of our Lord 1761,
Revived by Six of the Surviving Members of the Fraternity by the Grand Lodge being
opened, and held at the House of Mr. Henry Howard, in Lendall, in the said City, by
them and others hereinafter named."
This revival of the defunct Grand Lodge made possible one interesting episode in the
history of Grand Lodges, as will later appear, but it proved in the long run abortive,
and in the course of time the Grand Lodge of All England passed gradually out of
existence through a process of absorption, perhaps, by the ever growing Grand
Lodges that had been established in 1717 and in 1751.
The members of the Ancient Grand Lodge, organized on the latter date, of which an
account was given last month, desired above all things to claim for themselves as
great an antiquity as possible; it was for this reason, no doubt, that they fell into the
habit of describing themselves as "Ancient York Masons"; this was only a dodge,
without legitimate right or excuse, and it has caused a certain amount of confusion
since. I have only now, on the day I write, been reading the Proceedings of one
Grand Lodge in the United States in which this Grand Lodge claims descent from
York because it was chartered by the "Ancients" and these "Ancients", so it is alleged
in the volume, were York Masons; they had called themselves so. As a matter of fact
the York Grand Lodge chartered no lodges in America, and the use of the name
"York" is in all such cases illegitimate, though it may be accepted by way of paying
tribute to an ancient Masonic center, and to one of the best loved cities in the world.
On this matter I shall conclude with a quotation from W.J. Hughan, taken from
Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, page 1130:
"All the 'York' Lodges succumbed on the decease of their 'Mother Grand Lodge,' and
there has not been a representative of the Antient York Grand Lodge anywhere
whatever, throughout this (19th) century. It never at any time chartered Lodges to
meet out of England, and was always opposed to the 'Athol Masons' [or ’Ancients'] of
London, though the latter sometimes did, unfairly, style themselves 'Antient York
Masons,' a title affected since by several Masonic bodies, with as little authority."
II. AN INFANT AMONG GRAND LODGES
William Preston, a Scotch printer who came to London in 1760, was made a member
in 1774 of the Lodge of Antiquity, a "time immemorial body" that held rank (and
does still) under the Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of 1 7 1 7 as the oldest lodge on
the list. Because of his zeal, learning and ability, and because of his inauguration of
the Preston lectures, as well as his writing the famous Illustrations of Masonry (first
published in 1772) Preston ranks with Desaguliers, Anderson, Dermott and one or
two others as among the most brilliant names in the history of English Freemasonry.
Prior to Preston's admittance to the Lodge of Antiquity that famous old lodge had
been on the down grade but through his energy, and because he brought a new
infusion of blood into it by means of the initiation of a number of young men, his own
leadership soon brought it to a high degree of efficiency once again.
This work attracted the attention of Grand Lodge so that he was made assistant Grand
Secretary, James Heseltine being Grand Secretary. Heseltine believed that a new
edition of the Constitutions of Grand Lodge should be published so he engaged
Preston to take up the task. After he had done so, and the book was about ready for
publication, Heseltine suddenly insisted that Noorthouck, Treasurer of the Lodge of
Antiquity, should be given an equal share in the enterprise. Preston resented this and
as a result fell into a quarrel with both brethren, especially with Heseltine, who was
not noted for an irenic disposition.
While these feelings were still hot Preston was inadvertently and innocently led into a
violation of Grand Lodge rules, a thing that happened after this wise. On Dec. 27,
1777, Preston led his lodge to divine service at St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet street; the
service ended he and his brethren, attired in their aprons and gloves, walked a few
yards across to the Mitre Tavern. Now it happens that in 1747 Grand Lodge has
passed a resolution prohibiting all public processions except with the express consent
of the Grand Master, therefore the Lodge of Antiquity had become guilty of a
technical violation of the rules.
Heseltine immediately pounced upon this as a means of getting a thrust at Preston. In
making a reply Preston stepped into a trap by taking the position that since Antiquity
Lodge possessed a "time immemorial" charter and had not been brought into
existence by Grand Lodge, it had a right to regulate its own domestic affairs. This
furnished Heseltine and his friends with a new weapon that they were not slow to use;
Preston was expelled by Grand Lodge.
Upon this the Lodge of Antiquity split in two. That portion headed by Preston and
his friends immediately applied for a deputation from the Grand Lodge of All
England (at York: see above) and thereupon set themselves up as a new Grand Lodge,
using the style, Grand Lodge of All England South of the River Trent; it was
constituted Nov. 15, 1779.
The history of this baby Grand Body is as short as the simple annals of the poor.
Preston says that it warranted several lodges but thus far only two such warrantings
have been verified. The move was evidently out of joint with the times. After a few
years, during which Preston largely lost interest in Masonry, he succeeded in getting a
memorial considered by Grand Lodge and, after he had made his repentance, was in
May 1789 restored to full standing in Grand Lodge. Upon this the Grand Lodge of
All England South of the River Trent passed out of existence. It left no mark behind
it on the developments of the Craft and was never at any time anything more than a
III. THE GRAND LODGE OF IRELAND
Next in seniority to the Grand Lodge of 1717, and sharing with it and with Scotland
the lion's share of establishing world-wide Freemasonry, is the Grand Lodge of
Ireland. There was a time when little was known about Irish Freemasonry, especially
of the eighteenth century, but such ceased to be the case upon the publication of Dr.
W.J. Chetwode Crawley's Caementaria Hibernica ("The Freemasonry of Ireland"), a
magnificent work which ranks with Gould's larger history as to its scholarship but far
surpasses that massive production in the grace and appeal of literary art - a thing in
which Dr. Crawley easily stands supreme among the greater historians of the Craft.
Dr. Crawley, to whom the present paragraphs are almost entirely-indebted, shows that
Freemasonry was well known in Ireland at least as early as 1688, and that at a very
early date (comparatively speaking) the type of ritual later adopted by the Grand
Lodge of 1717 was practiced by Irish Masons. One of the proofs of this is found in
the records of the initiation of Miss St. Leger, the most famous of all "lady
Freemasons." Her case shows, first, that a Speculative Lodge was working at
Doneraile in 1710; second, that two degrees were then practiced; and third, that the
initiatory ceremonies were strikingly similar to those employed after the "Revival" in
Early in that century two Grand Lodges flourished side by side in Ireland, one of
them, with its headquarters at Cork, being the Grand Lodge of Munster; little is
known about the beginnings of either one of them, but a record shows that the
Monster body was in action at least as early as 1726, and that it had at that time at
least one subordinate body, of which minutes are extant of date Feb. 2, 1726. One
very interesting feature of these minutes is that they mention the appointment of
deacons, the first such mention in the history of the Craft. Scotland had employed
deacons in the century preceding but of a different kind. On this subject Dr. Crawley
wrote a paragraph important to be read:
"We must carefully distinguish between the Deacon of the early Scottish Minute
Books and the Deacon of the Irish Ritual. The former occupied almost, if not
altogether, the highest post among his Brethren, having precedence over the Warden,
and presiding over the meeting when occasion required. The latter held the lowest
official position in the lodge, and was mainly concerned with ritual. The former
correspond to the Dean (i.e., Deacon) of Faculty, the latter to the lowest order of the
ministry, the Deacon of ecclesiastical parlance. The similarity does not go beyond
In 1733 the Grand Lodge of Munster ceased to exist by absorption or fusion,
probably, with the Grand Lodge of Ireland, having headquarters at Dublin. So little is
known about the founding of this Grand Body that we must rest content with knowing
that by 1725 it was in full swing because in that year it had as Grand Master, Richard,
1st Earl of Rosse. It appears that the Munster lodges came under its authority in 173 1
or thereabouts and as a result of the influence of the Grand Lodge of Ireland's third
Grand Master, James, 4th Baron Kingston.
In 1 805 one Alexander Seton led a revolt, growing out of a quarrel that had to do
with the Higher Degrees, and with some friends and abbettors set up a schismatic
Grand Lodge of Ulster. This distracted the activities of Ireland for nine years only,
The close relations between English and Irish Freemasonry at that early date is shown
by the first Book of Constitutions published in Ireland; this was compiled by John
Pennel, Grand Secretary at Dublin, and was an almost exact counterpart of the
Anderson Constitutions of 1723. In 1751 a Book of Constitutions, properly revised
for Irish uses, was prepared by Edward Spratt, Grand Secretary; this version, as noted
in the preceding chapter of the present series, served as a model for Laurence
Dermotf s Ahiman Rezon.
In addition to being the first section of the general Craft to employ deacons the Grand
Lodge of Ireland is also notable in that it was the first to grant a lodge warrant, as we
now understand the term, when such an instrument was granted to the First Lodge of
Ireland in 1731; and also in that it was the first to grant ambulatory warrants, i.e.,
warrants for military and naval lodges, a fact that afterwards played an incalculable
part in the developments of Freemasonry at large.
IT THE GRAND LODGE OF SCOTLAND
The history of Freemasonry in Scotland is a subject of peculiar value to the Masonic
student because it makes more clear than that of any other country just how Operative
Masonry gradually evolved into what we have come to call Speculative Freemasonry,
because in Scotland, more than in Ireland or England, the records are less broken. By
dint of piecing one scrap of information with another one can gain a pretty complete
picture of the whole process.
What York is in the traditions of the English Craft Kilwinning is to Scotland.
According to one old book "a number of Freemasons came from the Continent to
build a monastery at Kilwinning and with them an architect or Master Mason to
superintend and carry on the work. This architect resided at Kilwinning, and being a
gude and true Mason, intimately acquainted with all the arts and parts of Masonry,
known on the continent, was chosen Master of the meetings of the brethren all over
Scotland. He gave rules for the conduct of the brethren at these meetings, and
decided finally in appeals from all the other meetings or lodges in Scotland." (Quoted
from Clegg's Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry, page 663.) Kilwinning
Abbey was in the County of Ayr, on the southwest coast of Scotland, about twenty-
five miles from Glasgow, and was founded in 1 140 by Hugh de Morville.
This is the basis of the "Kilwinning tradition" and as such was accepted by the author
of Laurie's History of Freemasonry; but D. Murray Lyon, the chief authority of
Scottish Masonic history (see his History of the Lodge of Edinburgh), attacked it, and
with so much success that it has been pretty well abandoned, at least by general
The oldest admittedly authentic Constitutions used by the Scotch draft are "The
Statutes and Ordinances to be observed by all the Master Masons within the realm;
set down by William Schaw, Master of Work to his Majesty and General Warden of
the said Craft with the consent of the Masters hereafter specified:'
These Ordinances are found in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh, also called St.
Mary's Chapel, which fill six volumes, extend from Dec. 28, 1598, to Nov. 29, 1869,
and contain other material of incalculable value. Along with the Schaw Statutes must
be placed, as of almost equal importance, the St. Clair Charters. The former of these
two precious documents was evidently written in 1600 or 1601, and was signed by
William Schaw. This document sets it forth that whereas the Lords of Roslin had
from "age to age" been considered the official patrons and governors of the Craft in
Scotland, and whereas they had become negligent the Craft had, by universal consent
of all Masons, agreed that henceforth William Sinclair should become "their patron
and judge under the King." The second St. Clair charter is largely confirmatory of the
first, and was written, so it is believed, about 1628.
A fourth important document in Scottish history is the "Edinburgh Kilwinning MS."
This was used by the Kilwinning Lodge in the seventeenth century and also by lodges
founded by Kilwinning, which was a "Mother Lodge," chartering subordinate bodies
in something like the fashion later employed by Grand Lodges. The important point
about this Manuscript is that it is a close copy of an English Manuscript Constitution,
thereby implying that even at that early date the influence of English freemasonry
was being felt in the northern Kingdom.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many non-Operatives, often lords of high
position, were admitted members in Scotch lodges; these non-Operatives exercised a
deep influence on the Craft, as had been the case in England; and also, as in England,
this non-Operative element came in time to dominate, so that by the beginning of the
eighteenth century a definite movement set in toward a complete transformation of
the institution. This tendency was doubtless greatly stimulated in 1721 when Dr.
John Theophilus Desaguliers, who had played so important a part in the founding of
the first Grand Lodge at London in 1717, visited the lodge at Edinburgh. Two
meetings were held during his visit at which non-Operatives of high station were
entered and passed. The minutes of these meetings, according to Lyon,
"render it probable that taking advantage of his social position, he had influenced the
attendance of the Provost and Magistrates of Edinburgh and the other city magnates
who accompanied them as applicants for Masonic fellowship in order to give a
practical illustration of the system with which his name was so closely associated
with a view to its commending itself for adoption by the Grand Lodges of Scotland."
On Sept. 29, 1735, Canongate Kilwinning Lodge appointed a committee for "framing
a proposal to be laid before the several lodges in order to the choosing of a Grand
Master for Scotland." To further this project in August of the following year John
Douglas of the Lodge of Kirkcaldy was made a member of Canongate Kilwinning
and then appointed Secretary in order to make out "a scheme for bringing about a
Grand Master for Scotland." Meanwhile it had been arranged that the four lodges of
Edinburgh should hold counsel looking toward the same end, and as a result four
lodges, Mary's Chapel, Canongate Kilwinning, Kilwinning Scots Arms, and Leith
Kilwinning, assembled at Edinburgh, Oct. 15, 1736. Other meetings were held, and
the project was brought before all the lodges in Scotland. Out of about one hundred
lodges thirty-three assembled in Edinburgh Nov. 30, 1736, and there formed
themselves into a Grand Lodge.
According to the traditions embodied in the St. Clair MSS. the real chief authority of
the Craft was embodied in that family; but at the assembly just referred to, William
St. Clair presented a formal document in which he relinquished all claims to any such
jurisdiction. He was immediately elected Grand Master.
Thereafter nearly all the lodges in Scotland applied for warrants from the new
authority, although for several years thereafter many of them retained their Operative
From this very brief account - altogether too brief to present an adequate picture of
the founding of the Grand Lodge of Scotland - it will be seen that in Scotland the
transition from Operative to Speculative Freemasonry was made gradually. And
while English Speculative Freemasonry undoubtedly exercised considerable influence
in that process there was never at any time any appeal to the Grand Lodge of England
for official warrants. Bro. Clegg, in his Revised Mackey's History of Freemasonry,
has given a succinct statement of this important fact in a paragraph excellent to be
"The Freemasonry of Scotland produced from its own Operative Lodges its
Speculative Grand Lodge, precisely us was the case with the Freemasonry of
England. In this respect it has differed from the Freemasonry of every other country
where the Operative element never merged into the Speculative. The latter was
always a direct and independent importation from the Speculative Grand Lodge of
England, wholly distinct from the Operative Freemasonry existing at the same time."
Note. See Study Club article for April, 1924; also article on Preston in same issue.
(Mackey's Encyclopedia (Revised Edition)
Ahiman Rezon, 37; Aitchison's-Haven Lodge, 42; Aitchison's-Haven Manuscript, 42;
Bruce, Robert, 121; Bums, Robert, 124; Chapel, Mary's, 142; Deacon, 197;
Desaguliers, 207; Drake, Francis, 220; Ecossais, 228; Grand Lodge, 306; Harodim,
Grand Chapter of, 319; Ireland, 357; Kilwinning, 381; Kilwinning Manuscript, 382;
Lawrie, Alexander, 427; Manuscripts, Old, 464; Preston, William, 579; Ramsay,
Andrew Michael, 607; Schaw Manuscript, 666; Schaw, William, 667; Scotland, 671;
St. Clair Charters, 715; St. Clair, William, 716; York Constitutions, 866; York Grand
Lodge, 867; York Legend, 867.
A.Q.C. (on Ireland), VIII, 53, 79, 110, 172; IX, 4, 18, 153; X, 58, 111; XI, 190; XII,
164, 167; XIII, 130, 142; XV, 100; XVI, 69, 174; XVII, 93, 137, 230; XXI, 58, 181;
XXIV, 68; XXVI, 131, 196. A.Q.C. (on Scotland), I, 10, 139, 193; II, 164; III, 172;
VI, 69, 108; VII, 56, 101, 137; VIII, 4, 45; IX, 171; XI, 195; XIV, 131; XIV, 131,
177; XXIV, 30. Caementaria Hibernica, W.J. Chetwode Crawley. Collected Essays
on Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. Concise History of Freemasonry, R.F. Gould. Early
History and Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen 1 ter, A.L. Miller. Grand Lodge of
England, A.F. Calvert. History of Freemasonry, Findel. History of Freemasonry, R.F
Gould. History of Freemasonry, Laurie. History of Freemasonry in York, Hughan.
History of the Mother Lodge, Kilwinning, Robert Wylie. Illustrations of Masonry,
William Preston. Irish Master Masons Handbook, Fred J.W. Crowe. Mackey's
Revised History of Freemasonry, Clegg. Unpublished Records of the Craft, Hughan.
— o —
A Word to New Members of the National Masonic Research Society; With an Extra
Word or Two for Old Members
YOU brethren who have recently come into the family of the National Masonic
Research Society from The National Trestle Board, and also those of you - a goodly
number - who have joined our circle during the past year or so will find it worth your
while to draw up to the table for a few minutes in order to learn what the Society and
THE BUILDER "are all about." In case this telling of what it is about fails to touch
upon some point about which you feel curiosity write us a letter. We have no secrets.
The National Masonic Research Society, as its name clearly indicates, is a society,
not a private commercial enterprise owned by some individual or group of stock
holders for profit. It began in 1915 as a voluntary association of individual Masons,
drawn from all the Rites, willing to pay their own way, to the end that many active
and studious Masons "that must have remained at a perpetual distance" might have a
"center of union, and the means of conciliating true friendship" in their activities. In
the management of this organization every member is entitled to a voice and a vote.
The Board of Stewards, which functions in somewhat the same capacity as a board of
directors, is elected from the membership, five each year. Prior to the annual meeting
of the Society held last October every member received a personal letter inviting him
to attend; hereafter such notices will be published in THE BUILDER at a date
sufficiently in advance.
The President, elected annually by the Board of Stewards, presides at the annual
meeting and during the year handles such matters as are appropriate to that office.
The Vice-President presides in event of the President's absence. The Board of
Stewards may be called together by the President at any time or place necessity may
demand, and according to a bylaw recently adopted, stewards may vote by mail on
such questions as are not sufficiently important to warrant calling a meeting. The
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care of such correspondence as has to do with matters of general policy. The
Executive Secretary has charge of the publication of THE BUILDER, of all business
matters, the book department, the membership department, and all activities involving
the expenditure of money; he is the Society's business manager. Literary and
educational activities and the editing of THE BUILDER are in charge of an editor-in-
chief appointed by the Executive Secretary.
Neither the Executive Secretary nor any other officer receives pay, and such salaries
as are received by employees are either nominal or according to the usual standards.
Business affairs are managed with the utmost economy in order that every dollar
received from dues (your dues) can do its full stint toward carrying on the services
being rendered by the Society to the Masonic Fraternity.
Membership is open to every Master Mason in good standing in any country of the
world. The present membership list, now larger than it has ever been before, shows
names from every country in the habitable globe. Membership is taken out for one
year at a time, dues payable in advance.
THE BUILDER is the official journal of the Society, and is not in any sense a
commercial magazine. It is sent monthly to each member as one of the prerogatives of
his membership, and every member is invited to a voice in its editing and is asked to
over constructive criticism, or otherwise help to make it as representative and
valuable as possible. It is not an organ of personal opinion or of any one school of
Masonic thought as against any other school. Contributions are accepted or rejected
solely on the ground of their general merit, and then regardless of the school of
Masonic opinion expressed, so that the journal can act as a free and fraternal forum of
Masonic thought and activities. The editor-in-chief is assisted by a board of associate
editors, and by a large number of other individuals, each a specialist in his own field.
The book department is maintained as a convenience to members so that they may be
enabled to secure new or second hand Masonic literature at the least possible expense
and with the least risk of spending money for useless material. Whatever a Mason
may need to know about Masonic books is furnished gratis, and always with cordial
Masonic periodicals, Grand Lodge Proceedings, pamphlets, etc., are clipped each
week and these clippings are loaned on request for study or speech making purposes.
At present writing clippings on nearly 20,000 topics are available.
From its inception the Society has been active in the promotion of all forms of
Masonic education, especially in the form of study clubs. It co-operates with any
individual, group, or Masonic body in organizing study clubs and then continues to
assist them as long as they function. A department of THE BUILDER is devoted to
In addition to this the Society has formed several groups of students for special work
in Masonic research, the members of which maintain contact through the mails; some
of these groups are soon to be ready to publish their findings in book form. Any
member desirous of associating with such a group or of organizing one himself may
do so by addressing a letter to the editor-in-chief.
The Society is giving a great deal of assistance to authors, or prospective authors.
Where a man is qualified for such work he is assisted to secure the necessary data and
literature; his manuscript is criticized; and he is then assisted to find a publisher and a
market. During the week immediately preceding this writing three such manuscripts
were sent to headquarters.
In all these activities the Society is assisted in all ways by the Iowa Masonic Library,
with its unmatched resources and equipment; of its staff three brethren are members
of our official family.
One of the largest of the activities at headquarters is replying to requests for
information concerning Freemasonry. If a question is possible of answer the Society,
through its worldwide membership, can find the answer. This service is given gratis
to all members.
In order to give the reader some conception of the ground covered by these requests
for information 100 letters were taken at random from the mail reaching Ye Editor's
desk during one week and classified with the following results:
Inquiries about the Blue Lodge, 1; Cryptic Masonry, 1; Scottish Rite, 4; other bodies,
3; foreign Masonry, 2; history, ritual and symbolism, 10; speeches, 7; architecture, 8;
books, 20; authorship, 2; jurisprudence, 2; is such and such a man a Mason, 6; social
affairs in lodges, 2; request for publication, 1; clippings sent for filing by Society, 3;
study clubs, 3 ; comment on items published in THE BUILDER, contributions
offered, 20; Roman Catholicism, 1; literature wanted, 1; unclassified, 13. This total
shows that several letters contained more than one request for information.
The purpose of giving all this information to you, Brother New Member, is to tell you
that this service is put at your disposal. Avail yourself of it at your need. If you desire
to find a place for yourself among those engaged in special research or otherwise to
lend a hand to the enterprise of Masonic education let us know. If you find that your
Masonic friends are interested in such work nominate them for membership by
sending a letter to THE BUILDER.
MASONRY AS AN ORDER OF MERIT
Here, in democratic America, we can boast of no Order of the Bath or Garter, no
ribbon of the Legion of Honor or Iron Cross; but there may well be reason for asking
whether decorations of merit created by 100,000 or 500,000 or 1,000,000 members of
an organization founded to alleviate suffering, to inculcate good morals, loyalty to
country, and to do good unto others - whether such an Order Of merit is not as
honorable as one created by prince or potentate who links his name with ribbon,
cross, or wreath? The former are the outgivings of armies which meet in private, but
whose purposes of benevolence and peace are known of all, mighty influences for the
spread of true fraternity. They are often hardly less resplendent than decorations
conferred by royalty, but are often more worthily bestowed. - Stevens' Cyclopedia of
* * *
The March BUILDER contained more than its share of errors, most of which were
slight enough, but sufficiently irritating for all that. No "alibis" are offered.
At bottom of first page, left side, "transcontinental" should have been
"transcendental," which makes quite a difference; and "Admis" ( God save the
mark! ) should have been our old friend "Adonis". Beg your pardon, Bro. Meekren!
The Latin quotation on page 100, April issue, should have read Mandatum novum do
vobis, a typographical slip. Beg pardon, Ye Editor!
An item concerning John Ross Robertson appeared in Ye Editor's corner for
November that was based on a clipping from a Canadian Grand Lodge Proceedings; it
appears that the information was erroneous. Bro. William Harvey McNairn, of
McMaster University, Toronto, has kindly supplied accurate data, as follows:
"John Ross Robertson was not a knight but had the extraordinary honor of being able
to decline a knighthood and a senatorship (which with us goes by appointment) upon
the same day. He did not bequeath his library to the Grand Lodge, but to the Toronto
Public Library, which however subsequently handed it over to the Grand Lodge. Our
friend Bro. N.W.J. Hay don is at present librarian."
* * *
RECORDS COVERING 323 YEARS
The Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1, has records and membership rolls dating back to
1599, and has been in continuous activity since. The Grand Lodge of Scotland was
organized in 1736, nineteen years after that of England, which was organized in 1717
and is the mother Grand Lodge of the world.
— o —
An Interpretation of the Blue Lodge Work
“SYMBOLICAL MASONRY” AN INTERPRETATION OF THE THREE
DEGREES,” by H. L. Haywood, Editor THE BUILDER; published by George H.
Doran Company, New York as Vol. 1, M.S.A. National Masonic Library. May be
purchased through the National Masonic Research Society, 1950 Railway Exchange,
St. Louis, Mo. Blue cloth, 360 pages, index, questions for discussion. Price, $2.15
FREEMASONRY is the Science of Morality, veiled in Allegory, and illustrated by
Symbols." This famous old definition of Freemasonry, for which we are indebted to
Dr. Hemming. I believe, specifies three outstanding features. Masonry is first of all an
ethical system, but its teachings are not spread out on the printed page for the
wayfaring man, though a fool, to glance at and forget; they are, on the contrary,
veiled, hidden from all but those who earnestly seek, by a series of allegories, or
stories of traditional history, which of themselves are interesting and beautiful. And
permeating the whole, like the grains of pure gold in a quartz vein, are the
incomparable symbols by means of which the lofty ethical principles are illustrated
and taught. It follows then, that he who would discover the quintessence of
Freemasonry must diligently seek the elucidation of its rich symbolism.
Upon this simple foundation has been erected the noble structure of the Craft, a
temple rich in many an echoing aisle, and adorned with countless storied memorials
of an unforgotten past. Many there are who enter its portals, and though impressed
with its beauty, see not beneath it all the firm foundation of moral teaching, overlaid
with a rich and beautiful symbolism, which supports the whole structure. Without
this, the superstructure would be but a flimsy erection, to be demolished by the first
adverse breath, like a castle of cards. But founded on this underpinning, it has grown
into a noble fame, which has already braved the storms of uncounted winters, and
which promises to continue as long as men live out their little lives of struggle and
He then, who directs our attention, and guides our reflection to a study of those
symbols which support the whole Masonic structure, is a benefactor of the first rank,
even though the exposition be bare and unadorned. But what shall we say when the
noble thoughts implied in this rich symbolism are embodied in a diction of limpid
clarity and great beauty! This great achievement has been accomplished by Bro. H. L.
Haywood in his recent book, Symbolical Masonry. We had read most of it piecemeal
as it appeared in THE BUILDER, but the unity of the whole is best appreciated in the
book, and indeed, it has to a considerable extent been re-written and much new
material has been added.
That this book is. destined to be a great success seems to be a foregone conclusion.
Other books on Masonic symbolism have been written, but none of them in so
convenient and attractive a form. The format, the paper, the letter-press, the binding
are all of a dignity so often lacking in Masonic books.
But this book is not merely calculated for quiet reading by the study fire; it is
especially well adapted for the use of study classes, and indeed, this is its primary
object as the author clearly intimates in the opening pages. The arrangement of the
subject matter facilitates this, and an appendix of questions to aid in systematic study,
and a full and well-arranged index, completes the volume.
The work begins with a history of the Craft of remarkable clearness and conciseness.
All the important points are adequately touched upon, and yet the whole is
compressed within the compass of twenty-three pages, closing with these noble
"Such, in brief, is the story of Freemasonry. What a story it is! It began in a far
foretime in a few tiny rivulets of brotherly effort; these united into a current that
swept with healing waters across the pagan centuries; many tributaries augmented its
stream during the Middle Ages, and in modem times it has become a mighty river
which sweeps on irresistibly. And now, if I may venture to change the figure, its halls
are homes of light and life; therein men may learn how to live the life that is life
indeed. Well may one unclasp his shoes and uncover his head as he enters a Masonic
lodge; a symbolism white with an unutterable age is there, and voices eloquent with
an old, old music, and a wisdom drawn from the thought and travail of a thousand
The author then carries us through the three steps in Freemasonry, explaining the
various symbols as they arise during the neophite's progress from the outer door to the
full light of the East. This is not done with the cold accuracy of a scientific treatise,
but with the warmth and vision which the vital interest of the subject so abundantly
merits. Around the symbols of Freemasonry the author has woven a work of
literature, at times, and when the occasion warrants, rising to a stately cadence worthy
of his prophet's vision of the dignity and destiny of the Order, as witness the
following sentences which close the chapter on "The Lodge":
"The member who finds the eternal verities growing dim from absorption in the heat
and burden of his daily task has them made real to him again as he sits in this
sanctuary surrounded on all sides by the impressive symbols of God, of Truth and of
Immortality. Truly the body of men thus living and working becomes itself an
eloquent prophecy of the far-off coming of the Universal Brotherhood, and stands in
the midst of a warring humanity as an earnest of the good time coming when the
engines of war and the implements of all contention will be laid aside forever."
To the beginner in Masonry who desires an explanation of the many strange and
interesting things he has met in the lodge; to the scholar who requires a convenient
epitome of Masonic symbolism for handy reference; to the Master of a lodge who
needs a text book for a study class or from which to draw material for addresses, this
book will provide all that is necessary.
W. HARVEY McNAIRN.
* * *
NEW EDITION OF GOULD'S CONCISE HISTORY
"A CONCISE HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY,” by Robert Freke Gould. Published
by Macoy Publishing It Masonic Supply House. Blue cloth, index, addenda, 480
pages. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society. $6.30
After Bro. Frederick J. W. Crowe's revision of Gould's The Concise History of
Freemasonry was issued in 1920 by Gale & Polden, Fondon, a long and critical
review was published in these pages, January 1922, page 23. In that review some
complaint was made because of the liberties that had been taken with the book as it
had left Gould's hands. Seventy-five pages or so had been entirely omitted; the reviser
had incorporated emendations in the text without showing he had done so; the section
devoted to "The Great Schism" had been entirely replaced without leaving Gould's
own account standing alongside; and while statistics had been revised no effort had
been made to bring some of the important items of subject matter down to date at all.
A reply to these strictures, gracious and candid, was published by Bro. Crowe in THE
BUIFDER of June of the same year, page 183.
The new Macoy edition, of which note is now to be made, removes cause for most of
these complaints, because, as stated in the Preface, "except for statistical changes in
the latter Chapters, and the insertion, indicated by brackets, of new historical matter
(to which, in a few places only, Gould's own text has been almost imperceptibly
accommodated without withdrawing an iota of informative statement on his part); i.
e., except for bringing the book thoroughly but guardedly up to date, the present issue
leaves the original Concise History intact."
About three pages of matter on the Comacine Masters from Bro. Joseph Fort
Newton's The Builders has been added to chapter two, and in the form of addenda
Bros. Sidney Morse and Jacob Hugo Tatsch have contributed some paragraphs
concerning present day Masonic organizations, including the National Masonic
Research Society, the Masonic Service Association, Quatuor Coronati Fodge of
Research, etc. Statistics have been revised with the assistance of Bro. Ossian Fang,
Grand Fodge Historian, New York.
On one point it may be possible to take issue with the undesignated editor of this new
edition; he says that "Gould's policy (indicated in his own Preface) of avoiding
footnotes has been adhered to." Footnotes are a nuisance in a book designed to be
read seriatim from first to last but Gould's Concise is not that kind of a book; where
one man reads it so, a dozen use it for reference only, and then in order to gain
information on some one question. Gould wrote his Preface above referred to in 1903,
twenty-one years ago, and quoted or otherwise used many books and authors no
longer familiar to the average Masonic reader, consequently it would now be a real
help if some information about these sources could be incorporated in footnotes.
Moreover, the great accumulation of new facts made since 1903 has made obsolete
some of Gould's opinions and outlawed a few of his arguments; it would be of
practical advantage to a reader, especially if he is a beginning student, to be assisted
to detect these by an editor, who could add in succinct form the new knowledge or
else refer to sources of the same. One of the typical cases of several that come to
mind is Gould's treatment of the Roman Collegia. It appears that Gould relied for the
most part on Coote, who wrote his works on early British history long before
archeologists dug up the bulk of such knowledge as is now available on the Collegia,
and therefore, in certain fundamentals of this subject he needs revision. The same
applies to the Rosicrucian question and other such matters of vital importance in the
In making this apparatus of critical notes (such as one finds in modem editions of
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire) an editor could at the same time
incorporate all the references to Ars Quatuor Coronatomm, which would in itself be a
much appreciated service to students who have access to those incomparable sources;
could give reference to the appropriate pages of Gould's larger History; and at the
same time could include titles of books valuable on the subjects treated in such wise
as to furnish a reader a complete bibliography on Masonic history, a thing lacking
from the book as it now stands.
Another suggestion may be made. Gould apparently had almost no literary sense; as
sentences crowded into his mind he wrote them down, crammed them in, and then
interlarded them with citations, quotations and digressions, of which the last was a
favorite device, and dangerous as it was favorite, so that the result was a composite of
numberless facts and confusing ramifications. The present writer, if he is permitted to
inject a personal word here, has read the book through some ten or twelve times, and
keeps it ever in reach; it is one of the most useful reference works in existence. But
alas! all this use has never reconciled him to the literary formlessness of the volume,
or made it any easier for him to pick his way through the labyrynthine paragraphs.
Gould appeared to be willing to let the reader get along as he best might; Huxley's
great dictum, that a writer must not only write so as to make it possible to be
understood, but so as to make it impossible to be misunderstood, never dawned upon
our "Masonic Thucydides".
It would facilitate the use of the book and also add to its salability (here one casts a
glance toward the publisher) if the whole volume were to be re-chaptered and each
chapter given a descriptive head. These shorter and more coherently arranged
chapters could then be further divided by descriptive subheads, all of which could act
as signboards by the way and thus ease the journey of the traveler through what is to
most readers a toilsome journey. Such helps as these would in nowise interfere with
the text itself.
If a reader is curious to try an experiment let him turn to page 272 of the new Macoy
edition and try to follow the story. First he is in Irish history; suddenly he is
catapulted into Scotland; then back suddenly to England, with puzzling digressions
thrown in; and once again sharply brought back to a mixture of Irish and Scotch. This
confusion could be well nigh eliminated by a few subheads or sideheads.
The new edition is convenient to the hand, and printed in good clear type. In its light
blue cover and gold lettering it appeals to the eye, though the illustrations are about
the worst ever. It is the most complete of all editions thus far issued of this famous
classic, and therefore the most useful, especially to American readers.
* * *
ROSICRUCIANISM AND FREEMASONRY
"EX ORIENTE LUX," by Alfred H. Henry. Published by The Stratford Company,
Boston, Mass. May be purchased through the National Masonic Research Society, St.
Louis, Mo. Red Cloth, 248 pages, no index. Price $2.65 postpaid.
Rosicrucianism is one of the puzzles of history. By whom was it founded, and where?
what does it teach? how large is its membership? who compose it? He would be a
patient man indeed, and learned in forgotten literatures, who could offer a hard and
fast reply to these questions. Bro. Arthur Edward Waite published his Real History of
the Rosicrucians in 1887 and thereby cast light on the mystery; but he is now, so he
has written, engaged on a new history of the brotherhood and no doubt will add much
to our knowledge. The Rosicrucians, by Hargrave Jennings, published shortly before
the Waite volume, dealt, as a reviewer put it, with "practically everything under the
sun except the Rosicrucians." Except for these two works, and for some periodicals,
such as Mercury, the public has been left largely in the dark. Lord Lytton wove a
romance about the sect in his Zanoni; so did Harrison Ainsworth in Auriol; and
Shelley in St. lrvyne. If one adds to these the books that dealt with Rosicrucianism
incidentally, such as Mrs. Pott's Francis Bacon and His Secret Society, Harold
Bayley's The Lost Language of Symbolism, and Gould's History of Freemasonry, the
transactions of lodges and learned societies (there are a few essays on the subject in
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum), he will have about exhausted the list of volumes
available to the general public and will meanwhile, perhaps, have reached no very
definite conclusions for himself.
The principal value of Mr. Henry's Ex Oriente Lux to the average reader not a
Rosicrucianist is that in it will be found, in elementary form, something of the
teachings of the sect as now organized in this land, for the book is, as the author
himself describes it, "A discussion [in informal lecture form] of the Method of
Approach, to the fundamental Principles of Rosicrucian Doctrine, on the part of those
who have become habituated to Western ideas and modes of thinking."
It is difficult to make a critical appraisal of this book, even though one may entertain
toward its author and his aim the most sympathetic good will, and that for two
fundamental reasons. For one thing the teachings of Rosicrucianism are largely
"reserved", as Roman Catholic theologians would express it, and also because those
same teachings derive their authority, at least according to the claims made, from
sources entirely outside of common knowledge. How can one know anything about
the "Great School", hidden in some remote country, of which Rosicrucians claim to
be representatives and disciples ? or of the Rosicrucian teachings not given to the
public ? or of those "Ancient Mysteries" (to which be peace!) which are evidently
interpreted in Rosicrucian circles in a manner not at all in consonance with the
findings of general scholarship, and of which the Brotherhood is said to be "the
modern custodian" ? Confronted by these mysteries an outsider has no recourse but to
lay his hand over his mouth and say nothing.
The second difficulty in the way of appraising Ex Oriente Lux is that its author makes
use of so many abstract highly generalized words about which hardly any two men
can agree in definition; here are a few, selected at random, and all of them capitalized:
Absolute, Omnific, Manifestation, Life, Affirmation, Spirit, Hidden House, etc. Any
one of these terms, or of a hundred others like them, may mean any one of a thousand
things, but the author furnishes no definitions of them, so that a reader soon finds
himself in cloudland, and somewhat worried by his situation. This ready use of what
William James called "solving words" - words that appear to mean much, but usually
do not in the connections in which they are used, and often used blindly, like magical
formulas - is treacherous at best, and all the more so in an attempt to make clear to
readers doctrines already sufficiently difficult of understanding.
One example will suffice. If one inquires of the author as to what he means by a
"Hidden House" he receives this amazing reply:
"The Sacred Books of the East all have their Light and Wisdom of the Hidden House
as their theme. Ancient Mystery Schools were all Schools of Interpretation of its
"The highest thought of Western Writers and thinkers - the Poets from Goethe to Walt
Whitman, including Tennyson, Browning and Lowell; the novelists from
Bulwer-Lytton to H. G. Wells; the Philosophers from Ralph Cudworth to Emerson
and Wm. James and Henri Bergson - has been inspired by the conviction that light
could be won by the earnest seeker, from behind the veil, which guarded a most
precious body of truth from premature discovery and profane exploitation."
After this definition, which must profoundly surprise a reader, it is added that
"Freemasonry presupposes the existence of this Hidden House, and its pre-eminent
importance." Did Freemasonry derive this doctrine from the Rosicrucians? The author
apparently thinks so because he quotes with seeming approval these paragraphs from
Mercury, "the official organ of the Societas Rosicruciana in America":
"Freemasonry certainly did not 'spring' from Rosicrucianism. Yet, in a perfectly
legitimate manner, the Rosicrucian Fraternity was the parent of genuine Freemasonry.
"The Rosicrucians perpetuated, from antiquity, both the Lesser and the Greater
Mysteries. At a time when all arcane bodies suffered persecution, it assimilated with
various contemporary craft gilds, principally of an operative character, invested with
legitimate symbology, and shaped the Drama of the Temple Builders into a
"When freedom of thought and action was assured, the gradual coalition of these gilds
was attempted, and, from this movement, the modem phase of Freemasonry was
evolved. Thus Rosicmcianism is what might be called the foster-parent of
Freemasonry, yet preserving to Freemasonry all the enhancement of the dignity of age
and an illustrious and legitimate descent from antiquity."
Here are a number of statements which, if they could be substantiated, would
completely upset the entire structure of Masonic history as it has been built up by
careful and painstaking scholarship during the past forty years. In such a connection
the burden of proof falls back on the author.
A NOTE CONCERNING "THE BUILDERS"
In my review of Bro. Joseph Fort Newton's The Builders, published last month, page
121, 1 incorporated in the last paragraph the suggestion that a list of questions for
discussion might well be included, also that the bibliography could be made more
accurate as to titles. Since that paragraph was penned a copy of the book as most
recently printed by Doran for the M.S.A. National Masonic Library has come to hand
and shows that my suggestions appeared late on the scene, inasmuch as the
bibliography has been revised and enlarged, and the "Questions on The Builders,"
compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club, Cincinnati, Ohio, have been added.
These changes will render yet more valuable a book that has already proved of such
great utility to Masons.
* * *
THE GREEK IDEA OF MYSTERY IN INITIATION
To the Greeks and to many primitive people the rites of birth, marriage and death
were for the most part family rites needing little or no social emphasis. But the rite
which concerned the whole tribe, the essence of which was entrance into the tribe,
was the rite of initiation at puberty. This all-important fact is oddly and significantly
enshrined in the Greek language. The general Greek word for rite was telete. It was
applied to all mysteries, and sometimes to marriages and funerals. But it has nothing
to do with death. It comes from a root meaning "to grow up." The word telete means
rite of growing up, becoming complete. It meant at first maturity, then rite of
maturity, then by a natural extension any rite of initiation that was mysterious. The
rites of puberty were in their essence mysterious, because they consisted in initiation
into the sanctities of the tribe, the things which society sanctioned and protected,
excluding the uninitiated, whether they were young boys, women, or members of
other tribes. Then, by contagion, the mystery notion spread to other rites.
- "Ancient Art and Ritual," Jane Harrison, p. 1 12.
* * *
A-l LODGES IN C-3 ENVIRONMENTS
BY BRO. WM. N. PONTON, Grand Master, Canada
Unless the officers of a lodge are men of light and leadership, full of kindling power,
the agenda will drag and there will be many empty interstices of precious time.
Masonry, like nature, abhors a vacuum. Fill every minute with good craftsmanship -
draw out latent talent - generously but discriminately divide the work. It may sound
heretical but I personally would like to see the opening formalities of the several
degrees much shortened, and the Junior Warden's lecture - that gymnastic test of
mnemonics - considerably curtailed, or divided as it is in other jurisdictions.
Encourage your members not to come to lodge alone always bring a neighboring
brother - there is great joy as we walk and talk by the way and a pleasant companion
is as good as a coach. Rain or shine commence on time and have all your members
realize that at every regular meeting one-half hour will be specially featured along
educational or inspirational lines, led by brethren whose pride it will be to prepare
and share. The apprentices have covenanted to learn; we have covenanted to teach. To
secure a good attendance it is not necessary to have buffoonery or vaudeville at the
refreshment table. Do not mistake vulgarity for vivacity, or excitement for refined and
happy pleasure. Do not go beyond the bounds of the Craft for "talent," except in those
rare cases where an outstanding public man (who may not be a Mason) may be
desirous of propagating the knowledge of some subject of general interest which he
has made peculiarly his own. Above all let your members go away satisfied and
feeling that they have been factors in the work and social pleasure of the lodge, and
not spectators and side-benchers only. The eyes and ears are the way to the heart.
True Masons are as willing to please as to be pleased - to share their gifts - to enlarge
the horizon of their friendships. Give them ample opportunity - set the pace - keep the
step - keep the touch. Rally together - stand together, work together, lift together - and
all will be well. One final suggestion on this vital matter of present attendance and
activity - make and keep your lodge-rooms and precincts worthy of the "House
Beautiful." Ventilate well both ideas and atmosphere. You cannot have clear thoughts
in foul air; you cannot have an A-l lodge in C-3 environment.
— o —
THE QUESTION BOX
SCOTTISH RITE RITUALS NOT FOR SALE
Is it possible for an individual Scottish Rite Mason to purchase a copy of the Scottish
M.G.T., Philippine Islands.
Replying to yours relative to the inquiry from the Philippine Islands regarding the
purchase of the rituals of the Scottish Rite, 4d to 32d, beg to inform you that rituals
are provided only to the regularly authorized subordinate bodies of the Sdottish Rite
and never furnished to any individuals. Therefore, they are not for sale at any price.
H.W. Witcover, Sec’y Gen'l, A.&A.S.S.R., S.J.
GRAND LODGE OF ENGLAND'S NEW TEMPLE
Is the report true that the Grand Lodge of England is to remove from its present site?
A. J., Dist. of Columbia.
There was some talk of moving but it has now been settled that the Grand Lodge's
new temple will be erected on the present site in Great Queen's street.
* * *
STATISTICAL STANDING OF THE ACACIA FRATERNITY
Can you please give me information about the size of the Acacia Fraternity in
comparison with other college fraternities?
According to Baird's Manual the Acacia Fraternity ranks twenty-sixth among other
college fraternities as to membership; it has 6,130 members as against Beta Theta Pi'
28,897, the largest, and Beta Sigma Rho's 240, the smallest. Baird lists sixty-six
fraternities. The first to be organized was Kappa Alpha in 1825; the last, Omega Beta
Pi, 1919. Acacia ranks thirty-sixth in date, having been founded in 1904. The Triad,
official journal of Acacia, edited by Bro. T. Hawley Tapping, 1511 Brooklyn avenue,
Ann Arbor, Mich., reports Acacia as now having thirty-one chapters; Baird lists it
twentysixth in order of the number of chapters and twenty-sixth in order of number of
chapter houses owned.
* * *
THE TRIAL OF THE KNIGHTS TEMPLAR
Please tell me where I can find authentic information about the celebrated trial of the
You will find an excellent account of the suppression of the Templar Order in THE
BUILDER, November and December, 1916, written by Dr. Frederick Hamilton,
Grand Secretary, Massachusetts. Charlotte Yonge's vivid story of the same
catastrophe, sometimes described as "the great crime of the Middle Ages," was
published in THE BUILDER, October, 1923, page 314. The most authoritative of all
accounts in book form is to be found in Henry Charles Lea's A History of the
Inquisition of the Middle Ages, Vol. Ill, Book 3, chapter 5, Harper's edition, 1888.
Lord Acton, the greatest Roman Catholic scholar of the last century, said of Lea that
"this American has said the last word on his subject." Lea was an independent and
impartial scholar who made the subject his life work. You can place entire confidence
in his account. It contains some interesting matter about Jacques De Molay, the hero
of the Order of De Molay. The Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. XXVI, page 597,
condenses much information into one paragraph:
"All France was at this time under the jurisdiction of the inquisition, and the
inquisition could act without consulting the Pope. The Grand Inquisitor of France,
William of Paris, was Phillip's confessor and creature. The way was thus open for the
King to carry out his plan by a perfectly legal method. His informers denounced the
Templars to the inquisition, and the Grand Inquisitor - as was the customary
procedure in the ease of persons accused of heresy - demanded their arrest by the civil
* * *
THAT FAMOUS DOLLAR BILL
The report has been circulating among our lodge members that a dollar bill of the
1917 series contains carefully disguised religious pictures or emblems, and that the
engraver of the bill was discharged from the Department for perpetrating it. What is
the truth about this matter?
The same inquiry as yours was referred to Senator Simeon D. Fess by David H.
Pierce, Akron, Ohio. Senator Fess sent the inquiry on to Louis A. Hill, Director of the
United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Mr. Hill's reply settles the matter:
"I am in receipt of your letter making inquiry as to the design on the one-dollar
United States note of the 1917 series:
"This particular note was designed and engraved by a bank note company, under
contract with the Treasury Department before the establishment of the Bureau of
Engraving and Printing in 1872, and has been used in various series since 1869.
When the Government took over all the material in the possession of the contracting
bank note companies the die for this note was delivered to the Treasury Department
and no one in the Government service has any knowledge of the identity of the
designer or the engraver, or any knowledge or in formation as to the motive for the
engraving into the design the serpent in the lower left-hand comer.
"As to the alleged portrait in the upper left-hand comer, which has been described as
the portrait of the Virgin Mary and also of the Pope, an examination of this ornament
with a reading glass will disclose that it consists of the petals of a flower which may
be seen best by holding the note with the upper left-hand corner toward you.
"Issue of the current series of all silver certificates, United States notes and Federal
notes will be superseded by a new series of uniform designs for all classes as soon as
plates for same have been completed. This action will retire the one-dollar note of
1917 series above referred to."
* * *
INFORMATION ABOUT FREEMASONRY IN INDIA
A brother of mine in the British Army has written to ask me to find out for him when
Freemasonry was established in India. Do Masons in India have a journal or other
source of information ?
H. G., New York.
Freemasonry was carried to India by military lodges in the British Army. The oldest
permanent lodge was established in Calcutta, 1730; next came a lodge at Madras,
1752, and then Bombay, 1758. Recommend your brother to subscribe for The
Masonic Journal of Northern India, addressing the Editor, P. S. Humm, 23 Abbott
Road, Lucknow, India. Gould's Concise History, a new and complete edition of which
has just been issued by Macoy, condenses into one paragraph the data concerning the
present strength of Freemasonry in that ancient land, the home of Buddha and of the
"In Bombay, the most brilliant era of the Craft is inseparably connected with the
memory of Dr. James Bumes, by whom, in order to throw open the portals of
Freemasonry to native gentlemen, a lodge - Rising Star of Western India - was
established in December, the first regular meeting there were two initiations, one of
the candidates being a Parsee and the other a Mohammedan, both ranking among the
most highly cultured of their own people; and, in the following July, there were
present in lodge nine native brethren, three of whom were followers of Zoroaster, two
of Confucius, and four of Mahomet, but all assembled with the followers of Christ to
worship the Masons' God. In the three Presidencies - with Aden and Burma - there
are at the present time 210 lodges under the English, 6S under the Scottish and 12
under Irish jurisdiction. Twelve of these British lodges are located in Ceylon."
* * *
GRAND LODGE RANKING ACCORDING TO MEMBERSHIP
How does the Grand Lodge of New Jersey rank among other Grand Lodges according
to its membership ?
E. A. R., New Jersey.
According to statistics compiled by Bro. C. C. Hunt June 30, 1923, New Jersey ranks
twelfth in the list with 73,854. While you are at it you may wish to see the standing of
all Grand Lodges, including Philippine Islands. The table here given was compiled by
Bro. C. F. Willard, editor of the San Diego Master Mason:
1. New York
26. North Carolina
3 1 . Colorado
32. South Carolina
33. West Virginia
1 1 . Iowa
36. Dist. of Columbia
38. South Dakota
40. Rhode Island
41. North Dakota
42. New Hampshire
44. Philippine Islands
2 1 . Maine
46. New Mexico
Total as of June 30 2,850,910
DEDICATION OF HOUSE OF THE TEMPLE
One of the members of our lodge has asked to know when the House of the Temple,
headquarters of the Scottish Rite, S. J., was dedicated.
D. W. A., Ohio.
The House of the Temple, located at 16th and S streets, Washington, D. C., was
dedicated Monday, Oct. 18, 1915. The Secretary General, Bro. H.W. Witcover, may
be able to supply you with a copy of the General Program then used, if you will write
him for one. In that connection you may be interested to read the historical account
printed in that program:
"This noble and imposing structure, to be dedicated to the uses and purposes of
Scottish Rite Freemasonry, is a monument to the wisdom of the founders of the
Order, the power and influence of the Rite, and the beauty and symmetry of its
teachings and philosophy.
"It is Freemasonry carved in stone; it is a great symbol in itself, epitomizes the old
truths which have come down through the ages from the most remote antiquity and
saw the first dawn of human intelligence bursting through the thick mists and fogs of
mere animal instinct when lighted by a spark of Love Divine.
"As no combination of words can fitly convey a sense of the beauty of a sunset, a lily,
or an infant's smile, neither can any description adequately express the grandeur of
conception, the lofty thoughts, the eclectic philosophy cemented here into one noble
block destined to withstand the storms of time and be a beacon light, through which
its ancient prototype will continue to project rays of Charity, Toleration and Loving
Kindness over the whole world.
"For many years the Mother Council of the World held its meetings in Charleston,
S.C., in a building still standing. Its headquarters were then moved to Washington,
and by steady growth and accretions of property the House of the Temple, situated at
433 Third street, N. W., became the Mecca of Scottish Rite Masons from all parts of
the world. Therein died the greatest of Masons, Albert Pike, followed closely by
James C. Batchelor and Philip C. Tucker. After them came Thomas H. Caswell and
James D. Richardson, all of whom have left a lasting impression on the institution
which the present Sovereign Grand Commander, the scholarly George F. Moore, is
confidently expected to continue and increase by his faithful service and the growing
influence of the Rite.
"All these have created an atmosphere which will remain with the old House of the
Temple for a long time to come, and the parting from such hallowed associations will
bring a feeling of present loneliness and sadness.
"But the marvelous growth of the Rite demands greater facilities, greater scope for the
exercise of its powers, which will be given it by this building, furnishing not only
room and opportunity for efficient service, but an inspiration and an incentive for
redoubled efforts in the cause of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in its beneficent,
self-imposed labor of assisting in the elevation Of humanity to a higher plane, of
spreading the gospel of peace and concord through all nations and peoples, of
diffusing the glow and warmth of compassion and sympathy for those sorrowing and
afflicted, and of fostering a sturdy patriotism, a good citizenship, and manly
independence, not only amongst its immediate membership, but by their example
throughout the civilized 38,348 world. Esto perpetua."
* * *
WHAT WERE THE CHERUBIM?
Of all the degrees in Freemasonry that I have been privileged to take I am frank to say
I like the Royal Arch about the best. Why can't we have more literature about it? In
that connection may I ask, What were the cherubim?
D. B. T., Illinois.
An adequate Royal Arch literature is sadly lacking, but if the leaders in the Rite are
successful in their plans that deficiency will be made up before very long. It is
difficult to give a satisfactory answer to your query about the cherubim. In the first
chapter of Ezekiel you will find a description of "four living creatures." They
possessed the "hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; the four had the
face of a man, and the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an
ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle." Ezekiel does not name
these creatures but commentators have agreed in calling them cherubim. Ezekiel's
pages, it should be noted, were written after the Exile. In the fourth chapter of the
Book of Revelation is a similar description. John saw, assembled about the Throne,
"four beasts." "The first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf; and the
third beast had the face of a man; and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle." Here
again the "beasts" are not named but commentators have called them cherubim.
Commenting on the cherubim Josephus, in his Antiquities, says, while describing the
Ark, "Upon its cover were placed two images, which the Hebrews call 'cherubim';
they are flying creatures, but their form is not like that of any of the creatures which
men have seen, though Moses said he had seen such beings near the throne of God."
In the same book he describes the creatures placed by Solomon in the Temple and
evidently implies that they were in effect the same as those earlier used by Moses; the
Rabbins have called these cherubim.
It appears that the Royal Arch banner on which the cherubim are emblazoned was
first used in the middle of the eighteenth century in England, and was perhaps
designed by Laurence Dermott, whose fertile mind did so much to shape the practices
of the Ancient Grand Lodge, from which the first Grand Chapter of Royal Arch very
possibly derived. As to the meaning of the cherubim in the Royal Arch, that, is
difficult to ascertain seeing that Royal Arch writers and monitorialists have said little
or nothing on the subject: Webb does not mention the cherubim, nor does Cross in his
Masonic Chart, nor Mackey, in his Book of the Chapter. Sherville and Gould's Guide
contains the lectures as now usually given but offer no interpretations. It is a subject
awaiting research; would you not care to go into it yourself ?
It is believed by many Assyriologists (Lenormant, for example) that the word
"cherubim" derived from the Assyrian "kirubi", and originally had reference to the
winged bulls which functioned as genii, each having the body of a bull, great
outstretched wings, and the face of a man, the duty of which was to cover
worshippers with their protecting power. Others trace the conception back to Egypt in
the Egyptian use of winged vultures, with wings outstretched. Consult Mackey's
Encyclopaedia, page 145.
* * *
A BOOK ABOUT FOREIGN MASONRY IS RECOMMENDED
In reply to a question in THE BUI1DER, March 1924, page 94, 1 may say that a book
covering this question will be found in the Annual Directory published by M. W. Bro.
Quartier-le-Tente P.G.M., Grand Lodge Alpina, Switzerland, the price of which is, I
believe, seven francs Swiss. Some two years ago he also published an illustrated Two
Centuries of Freemasonry which contains a great deal of information about European
Freemasonry and the Grand Lodges with which it is in fraternal relations. His address
is, I believe, 26 Beaux Arts, Neuchatel, Switzerland.
N. W. J. Haydon, Canada.
ANENT GOULD'S LIST OL LAMOUS AMERICAN MASONS
Bro. Gould's list of Masons in the war of the Revolution [THE BUILDER, March
1924, page 78] omits several names on record in Albany, N.Y., at least one which
should be in the list, as it is not generally known that he was a Mason. Brig. Gen.
John Starke signed the roster of Masters Lodge, No. 2 (now No. 5), during the year
1778, his name being thirteenth of the twenty-six who signed that year.
This agrees with his war record as it will be recalled that he resigned early in March
1777, but must have gone back into the service promptly as the Battle of Bennington,
in which he took prominent part, was fought August 16, 1777. He was commissioned
Brig. Gen. of Militia and later of the Continental Army, and for part of 1778 was in
command of the Northern Department; and during that period joined Masters Lodge.
The next name after his on the roster is Daniel Shays, but that will not likely find a
place on Bro. Gould's list. There are several other names on this roster signed with
military titles prefixed. Col. Henry B. Livingston signed about one year before
General Starke, and Lt. Col. Henry A. Van Rensselaer near the end of 1779.
According to Bro. Ossian Lang, Gen. Morgan Lewis was initiated in Union, No. 1, at
Albany in 1778, but his name does not appear on its roster. No. 233 is vacant having
been left for some brother who failed to sign, but this is the only break in the
continuity of names. The signatures prior to No. 274 are not dated so it is impossible
to tell whether 233 would come in 1778 or not. There are no names on the roster of
Union, No. 1, with military titles but in Masters Lodge, No. 2, the titles run from
Serg't Major Geo. Knox to Brig. Gen. John Starke, with a few naval titles to keep up
the prestige of the Navy.
Walter R. Marden, New York.
THE HIGHEST MASONIC LODGE
Some time ago I read in some Masonic publication of a lodge somewhere in South
America as the highest above sea level of any lodge in the world.
In the summit of Owl's Head mountain in the Province of Quebec, Canada, there is a
natural amphitheater of solid rock in which Golden Rule Lodge, No. 5, of Stanstead,
Quebec, holds an annual communication 2,580 feet above sea level and from which
the White mountains in New Hampshire, and the Green in Vermont, can be seen.
There is a world of beautiful sentiment connected with such heroic relations to nature
and any information regarding this "highest lodge in the world" will be gratefully
L.B. Mitchell, Michigan.
* * *
"History of the Eastern Star," by Kennaston.
"Caliph of Bagdad," by Sylvanus Cobb, Jr.
"Genius of Freemasonry," by Buck.
Vol. I, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.
Vol. XXXII, Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Both must be complete and with St. John's
"Records of the Hole Crafte and Fellowship of Masons," by Edward Conder.
"Restorations of Masonic Geometry and Symbolry," by H. P. H. Bromwell.
"History of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite," by Robert Folger.
Bound volume THE BUILDER, 1918.
"Robert Burns and Freemasonry," by Dudley Wright.
"The Masonic Year," for years 1920, 1921 and 1924. Pubished by Masonic History
"I am anxious to secure loose copies of THE BullDER for the years 1915, 1916,
1917 and 1918. 1 wish them complete from the first number, twelve copies for each
year, unbound, with original covers as issued. Any brother who may have these to
dispose of will please address a letter to me giving price and other details." - Edwin
B. Hill, Ysleta, Texas.
Send description and prices to Book Department, National Masonic Research Society,
1950 Railway Exchange, St. Louis, Mo.
* * *
YE EDITOR'S CORNER
For free distribution: A leaflet containing President Harding's last speech, an address
to Hollywood Commandery, No. 56, K. T. Send your name and address on a post
card if you wish a copy. They won't last long. Also a booklet on the "Mystic Order of
Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm."
More copies of the present issue of THE BUILDER have been printed than of any
other issue thus far published. We are growing.
Shiloh Lodge, No. 1, A. F. & A. M., Fargo, North Dakota, presents each new
candidate raised with a membership in the N. M. R. S. Several lodges are now doing
this. Why not get your lodge in line?
We are starting a special research group on "the Bible in Masonry." Do you wish to
join it ? Write Ye Editor.
Attention, Masonic architects! If you would like to publish a book on Masonic
architecture, with plans and illustration, write us; we have an interesting proposal.
It has been proved that President Monroe was a Mason. We have ourselves recently
unearthed evidence to show that President Arthur was also possibly a member. In
event of the latter's membership the list of known Masonic Presidents will be
increased from ten to twelve.
Any Masonic body wishing to use The School Bell in quantities is urged to write us at
The New England Craftsman has featured this fetching bit of poetry:
"Isn't it strange that Princes and Kings
And clowns that caper in sawdust rings,
And common folks like you and me,
Are Builders for Eternity?
To each is given a bag of tools
A shapeless mass and a book of rules;
And each must make, ere life is flown
A stumbling block or a stepping stone."
— o —
MAY BOOK LIST
(All Prices Postpaid)
Builder, The, in Bound Volumes
1921, 1922 and 1923 cannot be sold separately; other years at $3.75 per volume.
Complete set of nine bound volumes.
By JOSEPH FORT NEWTON
The most widely read of all Masonic books. Covers Masonic beginnings, known
history, and furnishes interpretation of the general ideals and teachings of the Craft.
(See review in THE BUILDER, April 1924.) Blue cloth, 343 pages, index
bibliography, questions. $2.15
Their Predecessors and Their Successors;
Including Further Notes on the Comacines
By W. RAVENSCROFT
The only work on the subject available in English. Paper, fully illustrated, 43 pages.
Concise History of Freemasonry
By R. F. GOULD
Gives in condensed form the materials of his larger "History." The standard one
volume history of Masonry in English. Cloth.
Consolidated Index to The Builder'
Covers years 1915 to 1919, inclusive. Paper 50 pages.
Early History and Records of the Lodge, Aberdeen Iter
By A.L. MILLER
An exceedingly valuable little book that explains much concerning Operative
Masonry. ( See extended review in THE BUILDER, November, 1923.) Cloth, 74
Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry
By ALBERT G. MACKEY
Two large volumes of 943 pages combined. Second volume contains glossary giving
pronunciation and meaning of all Masonic words in general use. De Luxe fabrikoid
binding, generously illustrated. $16.00
Evolution of Freemasonry
By DELMAR DARRAH
A popular history of Freemasonry; heavy coated paper, firm green cloth binding,
reinforced back, many illustrations, index, 422 pages. $5.15
Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges
By LIONEL VIBERT
A condensed scholarly book; embodies findings of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of
Research on Masonic history prior to 1717. A standard work. (Reviewed in THE
BUILDER, October, 1917.) Cloth, 164 pages. $1.90
Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750
By MELVIN M. JOHNSON, P.G.M., Mass.
The only work in existence covering its period and subject. A careful compilation of
important data. Cloth, 225 pages. $1.35
Freemasonry, Its Aims and Ideals
By J. S. M. WARD
A bold discussion of a number of controversial questions. Blue cloth, 232 pages.
Gospel of Freemasonry
By "UNCLE SILAS
Moralizings on Masonry conceived in a new vein. Popular. Selling with rapidity.
Third edition. Cloth, 60 pages. $1.00
Great Teachings of Masonry
By H. L. HAYWOOD
A "philosophy of Masonry" in popular form. Expounds each of the important
teachings of the Craft in 18 chapters. Blue cloth, index, 187 pages, bibliography.
History of the Knights Templar
By C. G. ADDISON
A standard work for Masonic Knights Illustrated, cloth, 670 pages. $3. 95
Humanum Genus By ALBERT PIKE
A reply to Pope Leo XIII's bull against Freemasonry. Paper, 52 pages. 15 cents
Jokes for All Occasions (Anonymous)
An assistance to speech makers of the post-prandial variety. Cloth, 368 pages. $1.10
Lectures on Masonic Jurisprudence
By ROSCOE POUND, Dean of the Department of Law
Based on lectures delivered in 191 1-1912. Five chapters. Blue cloth, index, 112 pages.
Lodge and the Craft
By ROLLIN C. BLACKMER
(See review in THE BUILDER, November, 1923.) An exposition of the work of the
Three Degrees. Cloth, portrait, 297 pages. $3.00
Mackey's Revised History of Freemasonry
By ROBERT I. CLEGG
The most monumental work ever published in America. Seven large volumes with
total of 2376 pages; illustrated; De Luxe fabrikoid binding; exhaustive index. $56.00
Masonic Legends and Traditions
By DUDLEY WRIGHT
(Reviewed in THE BUILDER, February, 1922. Review by A. E. Waite reprinted in
THE BUILDER, July, 1922.) Cloth, 152 pages. $1.65
Masons as Makers of America
By MADISON C. PETERS
A popular account of Freemasonry in the Revolutionary Period. Last edition. Cloth,
80 pages. $1.10
Master's Lectures, The
By the Worshipful Master of Evans Lodge
Twelve chapters on Initiation, Fraternity Toleration etc. Gold embossed binding,
8x11 inches 108 pages, limited edition. $5.15
Meaning, The, of Masonry
By W. L. WILMSHURST
An interpretation of the general ideals and teachings of the Craft from a mystical and
occult point of view. Black cloth, 216 pages. $3.25
By ALFRED LAWRENCE
Covers about same ground as Gould's work on same subject, but condensed. Paper
covers, 45 pages. 35 cents
By CORA WILSON STEWART
A thrilling account of the war being waged on adult illiteracy in the United States by
the woman who started the "moonlight school" movement. Cloth. 194 pages. $2.10
Mormonism and Masonry
By S. H. GOODWIN, Grand Secretary, Utah
Printed for the Craft by the Grand Lodge of Utah. Deals with a little known chapter in
the history of American Masonry. Paper binding, 38 pages. 25 cents
Philosophy of Freemasonry
By ROSCOE POUND, Dean of the Department of Law Harvard University.
Five chapters covering the leading Masonic philosophers. Blue cloth, 96 pages. $1.35
Questions on The Builders
A booklet compiled by the Cincinnati Masonic Study Club to be used in connection
with "The Builders" (see in this list under "B") by Joseph Fort Newton. Paper 13
pages, closely printed. 15 cents
Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry
By DUDLEY WRIGHT
A scholarly, non-controversial statement, incorporating most of the important official
documents. Blue cloth 251 pages, index. $4.15
By H. L. HAYWOOD. Editor, THE BUILDER
A popular brief interpretation of the Fellowcraft Degree. Pamphlet, blue paper, 16
pages. 16 cents
Speeches, Their Preparation and Delivery
By ALEXANDER BURTON
A handy text book for the budding orator. Cloth, 251 pages. $1.10
Story, The, of Old Glory The Oldest Flag
By J. W. BARRY, P. G. M., Iowa
A story of the Flag and Masonry. Reprinted from THE BUILDER. Paper covers,
illustrated, 20 pages. 60c
By H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor, THE BUILDER
Especially suited for use by Study Clubs. Prefaced by a condensed history of
Freemasonry. Interprets the work of the Three Degrees. Questions for discussion
index, blue cloth, 380 pages. $2. 15
Symbolism of the First Degree
BY A. W. GAGE
Elementary introduction. Good for Entered Apprentices. Pamphlet, paper, 12 pages.
Symbolism of the Third Degree
By J. OTIS BALL
Elementary study to be read by newly raised Masons Pamphlet, paper, 1 6 pages.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees
By OLIVER DAY STREET
Explains important symbols of the Three Degrees. (See Review in THE BUILDER,
December, 1923). Blue cloth 96 pages, index, bibliography. $1.35
Things a Freemason Should Know
By FRED J. W. CROWE
Condensed information about the organization and activities of English Freemasonry.
Blue cloth. 1.35 pages.
Thomson, The, Masonic Fraud
By ISAAC BLAIR EVANS
Bro. Evans was the attorney employed by Masonic bodies in case against Thomson.
(See review in THE BUILDER, October, 1923.) Authentic, complete, blue cloth,
index, 268 pages. $2. 65
Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry
BY H. L. HAYWOOD, Editor, THE BUILDER
Has been largely used for presentation purposes. More than 40,000 distributed.
Special prices in quantities Art paper covers, 36 pages. 25c;
Woman and Freemasonry
By DUDLEY WRIGHT
Especially valuable to students of the Order of the Eastern Star. Contains accounts of
So-called "women Masons." Cloth, 184 pages $1.90
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1950 Railway Exchange
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